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Table 1 Fundus autofluorescence imaging modalities. Excitation wavelengths, barrier filters, fields of view, advantages, and disadvantages of commercially available FAF systems. Although some systems use multiple wavelengths, only the FAF excitation wavelength is provided

From: Clinical applications of fundus autofluorescence in retinal disease

Imaging modality Fundus autofluorescence imaging systems Excitation wavelength Barrier filter (nm) Field of view Advantages Disadvantages
Fundus camera      Better for visualizing exudative retinal disease, red-shifted wavelengths decrease absorption by macular pigments and reduce lens interference, can be used with FA, color imaging, decreased motion artifact, more comfortable for patient No real-time averaging, poor contrast, capture more reflected and scattered light, prone to pseudo-autofluorescence
  Topcon TRC-50DX 535–585 nm 615–715 20, 35, 50 Non-mydriatic, also offers FA, ICG  
  Zeiss Visucam 224/524 510–580 nm 650–735 30, 45 Non-mydriatic. Visucam 524 with FA and optional ICG  
  Canon CR-2 plus AF (non mydriatic) 530–580 640 35, 45 Non-mydriatic, also offers cobalt setting  
Confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscope (cSLO)      Confocal optics reduces interference from the lens, real-time averaging, high contrast, high resolution, decreased scattered light Excitation beam is absorbed by macular pigments, cannot be preceded by fluorescein angiography, fixation loss, monochromatic, patient discomfort
  Heidelberg retinal angiograph (HRA 2) 488 nm 500 20, 30, 55 No longer commercially available  
  Heidelberg spectralis 488 nm 500 20, 30, 55 Also offers red-free, FA, ICG, simultaneous FA/ICG, infrared reflectance, multicolor imaging, dual wavelength technology can calculate macular pigment density, spectral domain OCT  
  Zeiss prototype SM 30 4024 (ZcSLO) 488 nm 521 20, 40 No longer commercially available  
  Rodenstock (RcSLO) 488 nm 515 20, 40 No longer commercially available  
  Nidek F-10 490 nm 510 40, 60 Also offers multicolor imaging, retro-mode, FA, ICG  
Widefield cSLOs      Detects peripheral findings, non-mydriatic, brief image acquisition time, can be used with FA Disadvantages vary by system and lens
  Optos ultra-widefield 532 nm, 633 nm 540 200 Decreased absorption by macular pigments, also offers color fundus, red-free, FA, ICG No real-time averaging, poor contrast, distortion of peripheral retina, view limited in superior and inferior quadrants, lid/lash artifact
  Staurenghi lens N/A N/A 150 Lens attaches to cSLO Requires placement of contact lens
  Heidelberg ultra-widefield lens N/A N/A 105 Lens attaches to HRA or Spectralis. High contrast, non-distorted images, no lid/lash artifact, can be used with fluorescein angiography Smaller field of view, view limited in nasal and temporal quadrants
  1. cSLO confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscope, ICG indocyanine green angiography, FA fluorescein angiography, OCT optical coherence tomography