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Table 1 Cases and controls according to demographic characteristics, metabolic control and diabetes mellitus profile

From: Risk factors for diabetic retinopathy: a case–control study

  Total (240) Diabetic retinopathy ORb CIb† ORAdj CIAdj‡
Yes (80) No (160)
n n % n %
Gender
 Female 153 51 33.3 102 66.7 1.00 0.57–1.74 1.13 0.57–2.26
 Male 87 29 33.3 58 66.7 1   1  
Age (years)
 ≤60 122 39 32.0 83 68.0 1   1  
 >60 118 41 34.7 77 65.3 1.13 0.66–1.93 1.28 0.64–2.56
BMI
 18.5–24.9 39 13 33.3 26 66.7 1.09 0.51–2.35
 25–30 70 26 37.1 44 62.9 1.29 0.70–2.38
 >30 131 41 31.3 90 68.7 1  
Glycemic control (%)
 HbA1c ≤ 7 80 10 12.5 70 87.5 1   1  
 HbA1c > 7 160 70 43.8 90 56.3 5.43** 2.61–11.36 3.83* 1.57–9.37
Diabetes duration (years)
 <5 87 14 16.1 73 83.9 1   1  
 6–10 67 14 20.9 53 79.1 1.37 0.61–3.13 2.05 0.71–5.92
 11–15 26 12 46.2 14 53.8 4.46* 1.71–11.63 7.52** 3.03–18.68
 >15 60 40 66.7 20 33.3 10.42** 4.76–22.73 9.01** 3.58–22.66
Type of diabetes
 Type 1 11 6 54.5 5 45.5 2.51 0.74–8.50 2.37 0.52–10.68
 Type 2 229 74 32.3 155 67.7 1   1  
Insuline use
 Yes 112 52 46.4 60 53.6 3.09** 1.76–5.41 1.25 0.61–2.57
 No 128 28 21.9 100 78.1 1   1  
  1. ORb: Odds-ratio Brut, ORAdj: adjusted Odds-ratio
  2. * p < 0.05; ** p < 0.01 (Pearson’s Chi square test and Wald test)
  3. 95 % of confidence interval Brut; 95 % adjusted confidence interval