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Table 1 Summary of complications following retinal and glaucoma surgeries

From: Retina and glaucoma: surgical complications

Conditions Articles Type of article Summary
Retinal complications of glaucoma surgeries
Ocular decompression retinopathy (ODR) Fechner et al. [2] Original article Coined the term ocular decompression retinopathy
  Arévalo et al. [9] Original article ODR occurred after trabeculectomy (4 eyes), phacomulsification (3 eyes), Ahmed valve placement (1 eye), silicone oil removal (1 eye) and vitrectomy (1 eye)
  Li et al. [8] Case report ODR following canaloplasty
Serous choroidal detachment (CD) Investigators A. (AGIS) [12]; Gedde et al. [13]; Elhofi and Lolah [14] Original article Original article Original article Incidence of 7.9–50% after penetrating glaucoma surgeries
  De Gregorio et al.[15]; Grover et al. [16]; Schlenker et al. [17] Original article Original article Original article CD following Xen Gel Stent
  Bakir and Pasquale [20] Review article Anti-metabolites as a risk factor
Suprachoroidal haemorrhage (SCH) Tuli et al. [25]; Vaziri et al. [26]; Jeganathan et al. [27] Original article Original article Original article Incidence is around 0.6–1.5% after trabeculectomy and around 0.5–8.3% after tube shunt procedures
Hypotony maculopathy Fannin et al. [31]; Tsai et al. [32]; Suner et al. [33] Original article Original article Original article Incidence is 1.3–20% after glaucoma filtering surgery
  Schlenker et al. [17]; Vold et al. [34] Original article Original article Occurs following MIGS
Malignant glaucoma Simmons [39]; Chandler et al. [40]; Eltz and Gloor [41] Review article Review article Review article Incidence of 0.4–6% of cases after penetrating glaucoma surgeries
  Schlenker et al. [17] Original article Following Xen gel stent
Vitreous haemorrhage Law et al. [52] Original article Seen in 5% of patients after aqueous shunt implantation
  Schlenker et al. [17] Original article Following Xen gel stent
Endophthalmitis Ang et al. [55]; Vaziri et al. [26]; Muckley and Lehrer [57] Original article Original article Original article Incidence of 0.12–1.3%,
  Busbee et al. [60] Original article Prompt vitrectomy is considered more beneficial than tap and injections even when presenting vision is better than hand movement
Retinal detachment Waterhouse et al. [61] Original article Incidence of 5% following Molteno tube implantation
Glaucoma after retinal surgery
Scleral buckle Perez et al. [65]; Smith et al. [75]; Kreiger et al. [76]; Sebestyen et al. [77] Original article Review article Original article Original article Incidence of angle closure glaucoma is 1.4–4.4%
  Pavlin et al. [78] Original article Supraciliary fluid with increased ciliary body thickness in 80% eyes following buckle
  Hayreh (1973) Original article Glaucoma following anterior segment ischemia
  Sidoti et al. [84] Original article 85% success rate with the placement of silicone tube in between the buckle and the overlying capsule after incising the capsule over the buckle at the apex
  Smith et al. [85] Original article Krupin Denver implant and trimmed Baerveldt implants (success rates of 82 and 73% at 1 and 2 years respectively)
  Scott et al. [86] Original article Baerveldt implants with intact plate successfully reduces IOP
Pars plana vitrectomy Chang [66]; Koreen et al. [87] Original article Original article Incidence between 11.6 and 20%
  Koreen et al. [87] Original article Lens extraction as a major risk factor
  Inoue et al. [91] Original article Success rate of trabeculectomy with Mitomycin-C is 55.1% at 1 year, and 43.1% at 3 years
Intravitreal gas injection Vitrectomy with silicone oil or sulfur hexafluoride gas in eyes with severe proliferative vitreoretinopathy: results of a randomized clinical trial. Silicone Study Report 1 and 2 Original article Incidence of high IOP following injection of 20% SF6 and 14% C3F8 was found to be 6.1 and 18% respectively
Silicone oil injection Honavar et al. [68]; Unosson et al. [98]; de Corral et al. [99] Original article Original article Original article Incidence of glaucoma after silicone oil injection ranges from 4.8 to 48%
  Honavar et al. [68] Original article Pre existing glaucoma, diabetes mellitus, aphakia, rubeosis iridis, silicone oil in the anterior chamber and high IOP on first post operative day are positive risk factors whereas anatomic failure and myopia as negative risk factors for the development of glaucoma Successful IOP control in 3 out of 5 eyes that underwent trabeculectomy with mitomycin C
  Nguyen et al. [106] Original article 60% success rate with Molteno implant
Intravitreal steroid injection Kiddee et al. [108]; Ansari et al. [109] Systematic review Original article Incidence has been reported to be as high as 11–79%.
  Kiddee et al. [108] Systematic review IOP rise in 32% cases after 4 mg intravitreal triamcinolone, 66 and 79% following 0.59 and 2.1 mg fluocinolone implant, respectively, and 11 and 15% after 0.35 and 0.7 mg dexamethasone implant, respectively
  Ricci et al. [114] Original article ALT seems to be effective in reducing IOP
  Rubin et al. [115] Original article SLT lowered (P < 0.007) IOP in 5 eyes of 7 patients with steroid-induced increased IOP from 3 weeks to 6 months postoperative