Skip to main content

Table 1 Comparison between selected case series and case reports which documented ocular abnormalities in PWS patients

From: Multimodal imaging in a patient with Prader–Willi syndrome

Studya Year of publication No. of cases Ocular findings
Gillessen-Kaesbach et al. 1995 167 Strabismus, refractive errors, iris/fundus hypopigmentation
Butler et al. 1989 56 Strabismus, nystagmus, iris/fundus hypopigmentation
Hered et al. 1988 46 Strabismus, refractive errors, iris/fundus hypopigmentation
Butler et al. 1986 39 Iris/fundus hypopigmentation
Sanjeeva et al. 2017 34 Strabismus, refractive errors
Wiesner et al. 1987 29 Iris/fundus hypopigmentation
Spritz et al. 1997 28 Iris/fundus hypopigmentation
Fox et al. 1999 27 Strabismus, refractive errors, iris/fundus hypopigmentation
Apkarian et al. 1989 14 Strabismus, nystagmus, abnormal VEP
Roy et al. 1992 12 Strabismus, nystagmus, foveal hypoplasia, VF defects, cataract
Hittner et al. 1982 9 Strabismus, iris/fundus hypopigmentation
Creel et al. 1986 6 Strabismus, nystagmus, iris/fundus hypopigmentation, foveal hypoplasia, abnormal VEP
Kalpakian et al. 1986 1 Strabismus, CFEOM
Libov et al. 1994 1 Strabismus, refractive errors, iris/fundus hypopigmentation, glaucoma
Wang et al. 1995 1 RPE changes, cataract
Hori et al. 2012 1 PDR, cataract
Wallis et al. 1989 1 Strabismus, refractive errors, nystagmus, iris/fundus hypopigmentation
Parcheta et al. 1987 1 Iris/fundus hypopigmentation
Hayashi et al. 1992 1 Strabismus, iris/fundus hypopigmentation, foveal hypoplasia
Watanabe et al. 2006 1 PDR, cataract
Shohat et al. 1990 1 Cone degeneration
Bassali et al. 1997 1 PDR
Savir et al. 1974 1 PDR
Hattori et al. 1985 1 PDR
Futterweit et al. 1986 1 Iris/fundus hypopigmentation, glaucoma, VF defects, ectropion uveae
Gerding et al. 2012 1 RPE changes, abnormal VEP
Lee et al. 1994 1 Iris/fundus hypopigmentation
Ritch et al. 1984 1 Glaucoma, ectropion uveae
  1. aStudies are arranged in a descending order according to the number of cases included. PWS Prader–Willi syndrome, VEP visually-evoked potential, VF visual field, CFEOM congenital fibrosis of the extraocular muscles, PDR proliferative diabetic retinopathy