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Table 1 Demographic, laboratory parameters and LogMAR visual acuity in controls, no diabetic retinopathy (NO DR), non proliferative diabetic retinopathy (NPDR), proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR)

From: Serum vitamin D is a biomolecular biomarker for proliferative diabetic retinopathy

Variables Controls (n = 22) (%) NO DR (n = 22) (%) NPDR (n = 22) (%) PDR (n = 22) (%) F/χ2 value p value
Age (years) 53.50 ± 1.6 53.24 ± 1.20 53.72 ± 1.40 53.61 ± 1.70 0.03 0.99
Sex
 Female 8 (36.4) 13 (59.0) 6 (27.0) 9 (41.0) 4.90 0.20
 Male 14 (64.1) 9 (41.0) 16 (73.0) 13 (59.0)   
Hb (gm/dL) 12.10 ± 0.32 12.0 ± 0.30 11.0 ± 0.50 11.40 ± 0.40 0.84 0.50
HbA1c (%) 5.35 ± 0.11 8.0 ± 0.50 8.20 ± 0.43 8.80 ± 0.60 13.10 < 0.001
Blood sugar F (mg/dL) 83.10 ± 2.10 142 ± 10.12 161.50 ± 11.12 180.90 ± 10.0 23.05 < 0.001
Blood sugar PP (mg/dL) 105 ± 2.00 217.15 ± 15.20 251.0 ± 13.4 261.0 ± 12.28 36.20 < 0.001
Vitamin D (ng/mL) 25.9 ± 1.60 23.30 ± 2.01 18.10 ± 1.90 14.10 ± 1.20 9.05 < 0.001
S. urea (mg/dL) 33.14 ± 0.88 33.26 ± 2.14 44.16 ± 3.44 48.12 ± 2.66 10.42 < 0.01
S. creatinine (mg/dL) 0.71 ± 0.02 0.96 ± 0.05 1.31 ± 0.27 1.57 ± 0.08 4.10 < 0.01
VA (logMAR) 0.10 ± 0.02 0.40 ± 0.04 0.71 ± 0.07 1.2 ± 0.02 113.14 < 0.001