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Table 2 Diagnostic accuracy of vitamin D (ng/mL) to discriminate no diabetic retinopathy (NO DR), non proliferative diabetic retinopathy (NPDR), proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR) using ROC curve analysis

From: Serum vitamin D is a biomolecular biomarker for proliferative diabetic retinopathy

Group Sensitivity (95% CI) Specificity (95% CI) + TPV − PV AUC Z value p value
NO DR 40.91 (20.7–63.6) 81.82 (59.7–94.7) 69.2 58.1 0.581 0.93 0.352
NPDR 68.18 (45.1–86.1) 86.36 (65.1–96.9) 83.3 73.1 0.757 3.51 < 0.001
PDR 86.36 (65.1–96.9) 81.82 (59.7–94.7) 82.6 85.7 0.91 8.17 < 0.001
  1. +PV positive predictive value, PV negative predictive value, AUC area under the curve