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Table 3 Univariate analysis and binary logistic regression analysis of factors influencing the peripheral events, extension of Main DME outside ETDRS and the presence of peripheral retinal edema

From: Large-cube 30° × 25° optical coherence tomography in diabetic macular edema

  Presence of Peripheral events Extension of Main DME outside ETDRS Presence of Peripheral retinal edemas
Univariate analysis Coeff (p-value) †  Multivariate analysis Odds ratio [CI] (p value) Univariate analysis Coeff (p-value) Multivariate analysis Odds ratio [CI] (p value) Univariate analysis Coeff (p-value) Multivariate analysis Odds ratio [CI] (p value)
Side 0.01 (0.78)   0/07 (0.14)   0.08 (0.14)  
Age 0.08 (0.08)   0.06 (0.27)   0.04 (0.39)  
Gender 0.06 (0.24)   0.07 (0.17)   0.07 (0.16)  
Diabetes History 0.02 (0.97)   0.07 (0.18)   0.02 (0.68)  
Diabetes Treatment 0.10 (0.28)   0.05 (0.79)   0.07 (0.59)  
High Blood Pressure 0.05 (0.77)   0.02 (0.65)   0.004 (0.94)  
HbA1C 0.16 (0.007) 253.5 [0.001– > 100] (0.54) 0.18 (0.003) > 100 [0.001–> 100] (0.188) 0.10 (0.06)  
Advanced DR Stage 0.28 (< 0.001) 2.19 [1.29–3.72] (0.03) 0.36 (< 0.001) 1.74 [1.06–2.87] (0.028) 0.2 (0.01) 1.42 [1.07–1.88] (0.014)
CMT 0.05 (0.31)   0.16 (0.002) 0.98 [0.97–0.99] (0.004) 0.13 (0.008) 0.98 [0.97–0.99] (0.005)
Diffuse DME Surface 0.39 (< 0.001) 7.76 [2.58–23.32] (< 0.001) 0.55 (< 0.001) 23.85 [7.59–74.98] (< 0.001) 0.30 (< 0.001) 1.74 [1.00–3.04] (0.027)
Hard exudates 0.16 (0.003) 2.18 (0.77–6.13) (0.13) 0.18 (< 0.001) 4.83 [1.27–18.41] (0.021) 0.13 (0.01) 2.13 [1.05–4.31] (0.035)
Microaneurysms 0.007 (0.90)   0.04 (0.44)   0.07 (0.19)  
Large Cysts Size 0.19 (0.039) 1.62 (0.97–2.72) (0.06) 0.24 (0.001) 1.64 [0.90–2.97] (0.10) 0.03 (0.92)  
Outer Cysts location 0.22 (0.04) 0.13 (0.01–1.66) (0.11) 0.32 (< 0.001) 11.57 [0.63–209.50] (0.098) 0.13 (0.29)  
Outer fields location of DME Peak 0.26 (0.012) 7.09 [1.76–28.57] (0.006) 0.28 (0.002) 7.75 [1.65–35.71] (0.009) 0.25 (0.18)  
Main DME thickness 0.2 (< 0.001) 0.99 [0.98–1.021] (0.10) 0.34 (< 0.001) 1.01 [1.00–1.021] (0.052) 0.01 (0.72)  
  1. DME diabetic macular edema, DR diabetic retinopathy, ETDRS early treatment diabetic retinopathy study, CMT central macular thickness, SD standard deviation
  2. In bold italics: statistically significative (after Bonferroni adjustment)
  3. Chi-Square test (Cramer’s V coefficient) for qualitative variables and ANOVA for quantitative variables (Point-Biserial Correlation Coefficient)
  4. Bivariate logistic regression