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Table 4 Description of identified patient clusters in terms of patient characteristics and answers to interview questions

From: Questionnaire for the assessment of adherence barriers of intravitreal therapy: the ABQ-IVT

Cluster (size) Cluster 1 (n = 72, 30.7%) Cluster 2 (n = 25, 10.7%) Cluster 3 (n = 65, 27.8%) Cluster 4 (n = 28, 12.0%) Cluster 5 (n = 24, 10.3%) Cluster 6 (n = 20, 8.5%) Overall (n = 234)
Short description of identified clusters “Difficulties with arranging the appointments themselves” “Depression/Worried about being a burden for the family” “No significant barriers to be addressed” “Lack of belief in the need for therapy” “Financial burden” "Several different barriers to be addressed “
Mean (SD)
ABQ score 24.21 (SD: 4.65)*** 24.08 (SD: 5.84)* 16.46 (SD: 2.95)*** 19.00 (SD: 2.96)* 22.33 (SD: 4.34) 37.05 (SD: 4.9)*** 22.32 (SD: 6.95)
Age [years] 71.13 (SD: 13.26) 72.4 (SD: 13.73) 72.4 (SD: 11.09) 76.39 (SD: 9.87) 78.67 (SD: 8.84)** 74.35 (SD: 9.36) 73.29 (SD: 11.79)
Time since diagnosis [years] 3.08 (SD: 2.70) 3.64 (SD: 4.46) 2.69 (SD: 2.90) 1.97 (SD: 1.10) 3.46 (SD: 4.36) 3.13 (SD: 3.02) 2.94 (SD: 3.10)
Time since first IV [years] 1.63 (SD: 1.12) 1.42 (SD: 1.00) 1.74 (SD: 0.98) 1.74 (SD: 1.06) 1.73 (SD: 0.98) 1.37 (SD: 0.91) 1.64 (SD: 1.03)
Number of injections per treated eye 13.83 (SD: 9.13)** 10.14 (SD: 6.97) 9.62 (SD: 6.25) 8.43 (SD: 5.89)* 11.42 (SD: 6.94) 10.13 (SD: 6.88) 11.06 (SD: 7.6)
Feeling at time of interviewa 3.17 (SD: 0.69) 3.4 (SD: 0.91)* 2.83 (SD: 0.78)** 2.79 (SD: 0.83)* 3.29 (SD: 0.69) 3.35 (SD: 0.67) 3.08 (SD: 0.78)
Change in VAb 0.04 (SD: 0.22) 0.00 (SD: 0.24) 0.06 (SD: 0.18) 0.03 (SD: 0.18) − 0.01 (SD: 0.23) 0.03 (SD: 0.22) 0.04 (SD: 0.21)
Perceived change in eyesightc 0.90 (SD: 22.27) -2.37 (SD: 21.43) 5.33 (SD: 23.18)** − 2.20 (SD: 10.76) 8.05 (SD: 23.98) − 12.88 (SD: 20.36)** 0.94 (SD: 21.97)
n (%)
nAMD (the other cases are DME) 41 (56.9%)* 20 (80.0%) 41 (63.1%) 21 (75.0%) 20 (83.3%) 13 (65.0%) 156 (66.7%)
Female 37 (51.4%) 16 (64.0%) 32 (49.2%) 16 (57.1%) 15 (62.5%) 9 (45.0%) 125 (53.4%)
Both eyes affected 31 (43.1%) 13 (52.0%) 30 (46.2%) 7 (25.0%)* 11 (45.8%) 9 (45.0%) 101 (43.2%)
Rate own adherence as 100% 63 (87.5%) 19 (76.0%) 52 (81.3%) 27 (96.4%)* 19 (79.2%) 11 (55.0%)** 191 (82.0%)
Quality of life affected stronglyd 26 (36.6%) 17 (70.8%)*** 11 (17.5%)** 6 (21.4%) 5 (20.8%) 14 (73.7%)*** 79 (34.5%)
Need or prefer daily helpe 23 (32.4%) 13 (52.0%)* 14 (22.6%)* 6 (23.1%) 6 (28.6%) 12 (60.0%)** 74 (32.9%)
Cataract 31 (43.1%) 8 (32.0%) 24 (36.9%) 8 (28.6%) 12 (50.0%) 10 (50.0%) 93 (39.7%)
Glaucoma 8 (11.1%) 6 (24.0%)* 6 (9.2%) 4 (14.3%) 1 (4.2%) 2 (10.0%) 27 (11.5%)
Diabetic retinopathy 26 (36.1%)* 4 (16.0%) 19 (29.2%) 4 (14.3%) 4 (16.7%) 6 (30.0%) 63 (26.9%)
Cancer 4 (5.6%) 1 (4.0%) 0 (0.0%)* 2 (7.1%) 2 (8.3%) 2 (10.0%) 11 (4.7%)
  1. Percentages of categorical variables may not correspond to the fraction of the cluster size as a number of patients refused to answer / did not know the answer to some of the interview questions. Significant α = 0.05 for comparisons of the respective cluster with all other patients; * p value < 0.05, ** p value < 0.01, *** p value < 0.001; significant comparisons made bold. aPatients were asked to rate how they currently felt on a scale from 1 = Excellent to 5 = Bad. bChange from first intravitreal injection to study interview. cPatients were asked to rate their eyesight at therapy start and at the time of interview on a scale from 0 to 100. dPatients were asked to what extent their disease limits their quality of life; answers were 1 = Not at all, 2 = Rather not, 3 = Somehow, and 4 = Strongly. For analysis, the variable was dichotomized into strongly affected (4) and not strongly affected patients (1, 2, 3). e Patients were asked whether they needed help in daily life; answers were 1 = Yes, in almost any situation, 2 = Yes, in some particular situations, 3 = I manage on my own but prefer assistance, 4 = No support needed. For analysis, this variable was dichotomized into a group needing no support (4) and a group needing or preferring support (1, 2, 3). DME, diabetic macular edema; nAMD, neovascular age-related macular degeneration; SD, standard deviation; VA, visual acuity