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  1. Original article

    Effect of intravitreal aflibercept on recalcitrant diabetic macular edema

    Despite anti-VEGF therapy, some patients develop chronic diabetic macular edema. The objective of this study was to evaluate anatomic and visual outcomes of switching patients with chronic DME from intravitre...

    Kendra A. Klein, Tina S. Cleary and Elias Reichel

    International Journal of Retina and Vitreous 2017 3:16

    Published on: 3 April 2017

  2. Review

    Multi-modal imaging and anatomic classification of the white dot syndromes

    The white dot syndromes (WDS) are a diverse group of posterior uveitidies that share similar clinical findings but are unique from one another. Multimodal imaging has allowed us to better understand the morpho...

    Meisha L. Raven, Alexander L. Ringeisen, Yoshihiro Yonekawa, Maxwell S. Stem, Lisa J. Faia and Justin L. Gottlieb

    International Journal of Retina and Vitreous 2017 3:12

    Published on: 20 March 2017

  3. Review

    Diabetic retinopathy and OCT angiography: clinical findings and future perspectives

    In diabetic retinopathy (DR), macular involvement can present as either macular edema or ischemia. Fluorescein angiography remains the gold standard in the evaluation of retinal vascular perfusion and diagnosi...

    Jose Mauricio Botto de Barros Garcia, David Leonardo Cruvinel Isaac and Marcos Avila

    International Journal of Retina and Vitreous 2017 3:14

    Published on: 13 March 2017

  4. Original article

    Long-term complications of sulfur mustard poisoning: retinal electrophysiological assessment in 40 severely intoxicated Iranian veterans

    The eye is one of the most sensitive organs to sulfur mustard (SM) [C4H8Cl2S], and preliminary symptoms of exposure usually become evident in the eyes. In this study we aim to evaluate the possible long-term reti...

    Nasser Shoeibi, Mir Naghi Mousavi, Mahdi Balali-Mood, Mohammad Moshiri, Emadodin Darchini-Maragheh, Seyed Reza Mousavi and Mojtaba Abrishami

    International Journal of Retina and Vitreous 2017 3:7

    Published on: 6 March 2017

  5. Original article

    The comparative effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of ranibizumab for neovascular macular degeneration revisited

    To compare a near decade of follow-up, newer control cohort data, use of both the societal and third party insurer cost perspectives, and integration of unilateral/bilateral therapy on the comparative effecti...

    Gary C. Brown, Melissa M. Brown, Heidi B. Lieske, Adam Turpcu and Yamina Rajput

    International Journal of Retina and Vitreous 2017 3:5

    Published on: 13 February 2017

  6. Review

    Arboviruses and the eye

    Arthropod-borne viruses, or arboviruses, are viruses that are transmitted through the bites of mosquitoes and ticks. There are numerous arboviruses throughout the world capable of causing human disease spannin...

    Gabriel Costa de Andrade, Camila V. Ventura, Paulo Augusto de Arruda Mello Filho, Maurício Maia, Silvana Vianello and Eduardo Büchele Rodrigues

    International Journal of Retina and Vitreous 2017 3:4

    Published on: 1 February 2017

  7. Case report

    The unusual association of inverse retinitis pigmentosa and Fuchs’ heterochromic iridocyclitis

    Classic retinitis pigmentosa (RP) and other syndromic variants have previously been associated to Fuchs’ heterochromic iridocyclitis (FHI). Common immunogenic and inflammatory pathways have been proposed to ex...

    Gian Franco Díez-Cattini, David Arturo Ancona-Lezama, Carlos Valdés-Lara and Virgilio Morales-Cantón

    International Journal of Retina and Vitreous 2017 3:3

    Published on: 23 January 2017

  8. Original article

    Vascular changes on fluorescein angiography of premature infants with low risk of retinopathy of prematurity after high oxygen exposure

    To describe a wide array of peripheral vascular changes using fluorescein angiography in preterm neonates, without high risk characteristics for developing retinopathy of prematurity, that were exposed to high...

    Maria Ana Martinez-Castellanos, Raul Velez-Montoya, Kenneth Price, Andree Henaine-Berra, Gerardo García-Aguirre, Virgilio Morales-Canton and Linda Alejandra Cernichiaro-Espinosa

    International Journal of Retina and Vitreous 2017 3:2

    Published on: 16 January 2017

  9. Review

    The potential of spectral domain optical coherence tomography imaging based retinal biomarkers

    Biomarker”, a merged word of “biological marker”, refers to a broad subcategory of medical signs that objectively indicate the state of health, and well-being of an individual. Biomarkers hold great promise fo...

    Prateep Phadikar, Sandeep Saxena, Surabhi Ruia, Timothy Y. Y. Lai, Carsten H. Meyer and Dean Eliott

    International Journal of Retina and Vitreous 2017 3:1

    Published on: 9 January 2017

  10. Review

    Neovascular glaucoma: a review

    Neovascular glaucoma (NVG) is a secondary glaucoma generally associated with poor visual prognosis. The development of new vessels over the iris and the iridocorneal angle can obstruct aqueous humor outflow an...

    Gustavo B. Rodrigues, Ricardo Y. Abe, Camila Zangalli, Savio L. Sodre, Flavia A. Donini, Danilo C. Costa, Andre Leite, Joao P. Felix, Marcelo Torigoe, Alberto Diniz-Filho and Homero Gusmão de Almeida

    International Journal of Retina and Vitreous 2016 2:26

    Published on: 14 November 2016

  11. Review

    Novel perspectives on swept-source optical coherence tomography

    Technologies for multimodal digital imaging of vitreoretinal diseases have improved the accuracy of diagnosis and the depth of the knowledge of the mechanisms of disease and their response to treatments. Optic...

    Fabio Lavinsky and Daniel Lavinsky

    International Journal of Retina and Vitreous 2016 2:25

    Published on: 1 November 2016

  12. Review

    The role of optical coherence tomography in Alzheimer’s disease

    Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is the most common cause of dementia and its incidence is increasing worldwide along with population aging. Previous clinical and histologic studies suggest that the neurodegenerative ...

    Leonardo Provetti Cunha, Ana Laura Maciel Almeida, Luciana Virgínia Ferreira Costa-Cunha, Carolina Ferreira Costa and Mário L. R. Monteiro

    International Journal of Retina and Vitreous 2016 2:24

    Published on: 17 October 2016

  13. Original article

    Choroidal thickness in older patients with central serous chorioretinopathy

    To investigate the choroidal thickness in older patients with central serous chorioretinopathy (CSCR) compared to age-matched normal subjects.

    Caio V. Regatieri, Eduardo A. Novais, Lauren Branchini, Mehreen Adhi, Emily D. Cole, Ricardo Louzada, Mark Lane, Elias Reichel and Jay S. Duker

    International Journal of Retina and Vitreous 2016 2:22

    Published on: 15 September 2016

  14. Original article

    Risk factors for diabetic retinopathy: a case–control study

    Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is the major cause of blindness among working age adults. The aim of the study was to investigate risk factors for development of DR.

    Vinícius Carriero Lima, Gabriela Coutinho Cavalieri, Maurício Carriero Lima, Nazaré Otília Nazario and Gina Carriero Lima

    International Journal of Retina and Vitreous 2016 2:21

    Published on: 12 September 2016

  15. Original article

    Aflibercept in branch retinal vein occlusion as second line therapy: clinical outcome 12 months after changing treatment from bevacizumab/ranibizumab—a pilot study

    To evaluate the effect of aflibercept (as second line therapy) on the clinical outcome in patients with chronic macular edema secondary to branch retinal vein occlusion (BRVO) insufficiently responding to pri...

    Magdalena A. Wirth, Matthias D. Becker, Nicole Graf and Stephan Michels

    International Journal of Retina and Vitreous 2016 2:20

    Published on: 23 August 2016

  16. Review

    Macular pigment in retinal health and disease

    Lutein and zeaxanthin, two carotenoid pigments of the xanthophyll subclass, are present in high concentrations in the retina, especially in the macula. They work as a filter protecting the macula from blue lig...

    Verônica Castro Lima, Richard B. Rosen and Michel Farah

    International Journal of Retina and Vitreous 2016 2:19

    Published on: 15 August 2016

  17. Case report

    Intralesional antibiotic injection using 41G needle for the management of subretinal abscess in endogenous endophthalmitis

    Presence of subretinal abscess in endogenous endophthalmitis indicates a more severe form of infection. Available reports indicate variable response to standard treatment with systemic, intravitreal pharmacoth...

    Pradeep Venkatesh, Shreys Temkar, Koushik Tripathy and Rohan Chawla

    International Journal of Retina and Vitreous 2016 2:17

    Published on: 1 August 2016

  18. Original article

    Expanded spectral domain-OCT findings in the early detection of hydroxychloroquine retinopathy and changes following drug cessation

    To report expanded SD-OCT findings of HCQ retinopathy that may assist the clinician in earlier diagnosis. To characterize structural changes of HCQ retinopathy with SD-OCT after drug cessation.

    David R. Lally, Jeffrey S. Heier, Caroline Baumal, Andre J. Witkin, Steven Maler, Chirag P. Shah, Elias Reichel, Nadia K. Waheed, Igor Bussel, Adam Rogers and Jay S. Duker

    International Journal of Retina and Vitreous 2016 2:18

    Published on: 18 July 2016

  19. Original article

    Initiation of intravitreal aflibercept injection treatment in patients with diabetic macular edema: a review of VIVID-DME and VISTA-DME data

    Diabetic macular edema (DME) shows a gradual and sustained functional and morphologic response to anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) drugs, but the optimal schedule for initiation of anti-VEGF ther...

    Focke Ziemssen, Patricio G. Schlottman, Jennifer I. Lim, Hansjürgen Agostini, Gabriele E. Lang and Francesco Bandello

    International Journal of Retina and Vitreous 2016 2:16

    Published on: 11 July 2016

  20. Original article

    Automated macular choroidal thickness measurement by swept-source optical coherence tomography in pseudoxanthoma elasticum

    Pseudoxanthoma elasticum (PXE) typically involves elastic fibers in blood vessels and Bruch membrane. Our purpose was to analyze retinal and choroidal macular thickness in patients with angioid streaks due PXE...

    Rosa Dolz-Marco, María Andreu-Fenoll, Pablo Hernández-Martínez, M. Dolores Pinazo-Durán and Roberto Gallego-Pinazo

    International Journal of Retina and Vitreous 2016 2:15

    Published on: 13 June 2016

  21. Original article

    Changes of macular pigment optical density in elderly eyes: a longitudinal analysis from the MARS study

    Macular pigment (MP) has been related to the occurrence of age related macular degeneration (AMD). We investigated prospectively in eyes of elderly individuals how magnitude and spatial distribution of MP had ...

    Verena Meyer zu Westrup, Martha Dietzel, Meike Zeimer, Daniel Pauleikhoff and Hans-Werner Hense

    International Journal of Retina and Vitreous 2016 2:14

    Published on: 1 June 2016

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The official journal of the Brazilian Retina and Vitreous Society

International Journal of Retina and Vitreous is endorsed by the Pan American Society of Retina and Vitreous