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  1. Review

    The potential of spectral domain optical coherence tomography imaging based retinal biomarkers

    Biomarker”, a merged word of “biological marker”, refers to a broad subcategory of medical signs that objectively indicate the state of health, and well-being of an individual. Biomarkers hold great promise fo...

    Prateep Phadikar, Sandeep Saxena, Surabhi Ruia, Timothy Y. Y. Lai, Carsten H. Meyer and Dean Eliott

    International Journal of Retina and Vitreous 2017 3:1

    Published on: 9 January 2017

  2. Review

    Neovascular glaucoma: a review

    Neovascular glaucoma (NVG) is a secondary glaucoma generally associated with poor visual prognosis. The development of new vessels over the iris and the iridocorneal angle can obstruct aqueous humor outflow an...

    Gustavo B. Rodrigues, Ricardo Y. Abe, Camila Zangalli, Savio L. Sodre, Flavia A. Donini, Danilo C. Costa, Andre Leite, Joao P. Felix, Marcelo Torigoe, Alberto Diniz-Filho and Homero Gusmão de Almeida

    International Journal of Retina and Vitreous 2016 2:26

    Published on: 14 November 2016

  3. Review

    Novel perspectives on swept-source optical coherence tomography

    Technologies for multimodal digital imaging of vitreoretinal diseases have improved the accuracy of diagnosis and the depth of the knowledge of the mechanisms of disease and their response to treatments. Optic...

    Fabio Lavinsky and Daniel Lavinsky

    International Journal of Retina and Vitreous 2016 2:25

    Published on: 1 November 2016

  4. Review

    The role of optical coherence tomography in Alzheimer’s disease

    Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is the most common cause of dementia and its incidence is increasing worldwide along with population aging. Previous clinical and histologic studies suggest that the neurodegenerative ...

    Leonardo Provetti Cunha, Ana Laura Maciel Almeida, Luciana Virgínia Ferreira Costa-Cunha, Carolina Ferreira Costa and Mário L. R. Monteiro

    International Journal of Retina and Vitreous 2016 2:24

    Published on: 17 October 2016

  5. Original article

    Choroidal thickness in older patients with central serous chorioretinopathy

    To investigate the choroidal thickness in older patients with central serous chorioretinopathy (CSCR) compared to age-matched normal subjects.

    Caio V. Regatieri, Eduardo A. Novais, Lauren Branchini, Mehreen Adhi, Emily D. Cole, Ricardo Louzada, Mark Lane, Elias Reichel and Jay S. Duker

    International Journal of Retina and Vitreous 2016 2:22

    Published on: 15 September 2016

  6. Original article

    Risk factors for diabetic retinopathy: a case–control study

    Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is the major cause of blindness among working age adults. The aim of the study was to investigate risk factors for development of DR.

    Vinícius Carriero Lima, Gabriela Coutinho Cavalieri, Maurício Carriero Lima, Nazaré Otília Nazario and Gina Carriero Lima

    International Journal of Retina and Vitreous 2016 2:21

    Published on: 12 September 2016

  7. Original article

    Aflibercept in branch retinal vein occlusion as second line therapy: clinical outcome 12 months after changing treatment from bevacizumab/ranibizumab—a pilot study

    To evaluate the effect of aflibercept (as second line therapy) on the clinical outcome in patients with chronic macular edema secondary to branch retinal vein occlusion (BRVO) insufficiently responding to pri...

    Magdalena A. Wirth, Matthias D. Becker, Nicole Graf and Stephan Michels

    International Journal of Retina and Vitreous 2016 2:20

    Published on: 23 August 2016

  8. Review

    Macular pigment in retinal health and disease

    Lutein and zeaxanthin, two carotenoid pigments of the xanthophyll subclass, are present in high concentrations in the retina, especially in the macula. They work as a filter protecting the macula from blue lig...

    Verônica Castro Lima, Richard B. Rosen and Michel Farah

    International Journal of Retina and Vitreous 2016 2:19

    Published on: 15 August 2016

  9. Case report

    Intralesional antibiotic injection using 41G needle for the management of subretinal abscess in endogenous endophthalmitis

    Presence of subretinal abscess in endogenous endophthalmitis indicates a more severe form of infection. Available reports indicate variable response to standard treatment with systemic, intravitreal pharmacoth...

    Pradeep Venkatesh, Shreys Temkar, Koushik Tripathy and Rohan Chawla

    International Journal of Retina and Vitreous 2016 2:17

    Published on: 1 August 2016

  10. Original article

    Expanded spectral domain-OCT findings in the early detection of hydroxychloroquine retinopathy and changes following drug cessation

    To report expanded SD-OCT findings of HCQ retinopathy that may assist the clinician in earlier diagnosis. To characterize structural changes of HCQ retinopathy with SD-OCT after drug cessation.

    David R. Lally, Jeffrey S. Heier, Caroline Baumal, Andre J. Witkin, Steven Maler, Chirag P. Shah, Elias Reichel, Nadia K. Waheed, Igor Bussel, Adam Rogers and Jay S. Duker

    International Journal of Retina and Vitreous 2016 2:18

    Published on: 18 July 2016

  11. Original article

    Initiation of intravitreal aflibercept injection treatment in patients with diabetic macular edema: a review of VIVID-DME and VISTA-DME data

    Diabetic macular edema (DME) shows a gradual and sustained functional and morphologic response to anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) drugs, but the optimal schedule for initiation of anti-VEGF ther...

    Focke Ziemssen, Patricio G. Schlottman, Jennifer I. Lim, Hansjürgen Agostini, Gabriele E. Lang and Francesco Bandello

    International Journal of Retina and Vitreous 2016 2:16

    Published on: 11 July 2016

  12. Original article

    Automated macular choroidal thickness measurement by swept-source optical coherence tomography in pseudoxanthoma elasticum

    Pseudoxanthoma elasticum (PXE) typically involves elastic fibers in blood vessels and Bruch membrane. Our purpose was to analyze retinal and choroidal macular thickness in patients with angioid streaks due PXE...

    Rosa Dolz-Marco, María Andreu-Fenoll, Pablo Hernández-Martínez, M. Dolores Pinazo-Durán and Roberto Gallego-Pinazo

    International Journal of Retina and Vitreous 2016 2:15

    Published on: 13 June 2016

  13. Original article

    Changes of macular pigment optical density in elderly eyes: a longitudinal analysis from the MARS study

    Macular pigment (MP) has been related to the occurrence of age related macular degeneration (AMD). We investigated prospectively in eyes of elderly individuals how magnitude and spatial distribution of MP had ...

    Verena Meyer zu Westrup, Martha Dietzel, Meike Zeimer, Daniel Pauleikhoff and Hans-Werner Hense

    International Journal of Retina and Vitreous 2016 2:14

    Published on: 1 June 2016

  14. Case report

    Multimodal imaging of bilateral diffuse uveal melanocytic proliferation associated with an iris mass lesion

    Bilateral diffuse uveal melanocytic proliferation (BDUMP) is a rare, paraneoplastic syndrome characterized by bilateral painless visual loss and proliferation of choroidal melanocytes in association with an un...

    Jonathan Naysan, Claudine E. Pang, Robert W. Klein and K. Bailey Freund

    International Journal of Retina and Vitreous 2016 2:13

    Published on: 16 May 2016

  15. Review

    Human retinal microvascular imaging using adaptive optics scanning light ophthalmoscopy

    Retinal microvascular imaging is an especially promising application of high resolution imaging since there are increasing options for therapeutic intervention and need for better structural and functional bio...

    Toco Y. P. Chui, Shelley Mo, Brian Krawitz, Nikhil R. Menon, Nadim Choudhury, Alexander Gan, Moataz Razeen, Nishit Shah, Alexander Pinhas and Richard B. Rosen

    International Journal of Retina and Vitreous 2016 2:11

    Published on: 1 May 2016

  16. Review

    Clinical applications of fundus autofluorescence in retinal disease

    Fundus autofluorescence (FAF) is a non-invasive retinal imaging modality used in clinical practice to provide a density map of lipofuscin, the predominant ocular fluorophore, in the retinal pigment epithelium....

    Madeline Yung, Michael A. Klufas and David Sarraf

    International Journal of Retina and Vitreous 2016 2:12

    Published on: 8 April 2016

  17. Original article

    Sulfur hexafluoride (SF6) versus perfluoropropane (C3F8) tamponade and short term face-down position for macular hole repair: a randomized prospective study

    To compare early visual and anatomical outcomes after either sulfur hexafluoride (SF6) or perfluoropropane (C3F8) tamponade for macular hole repair.

    Giamberto Casini, Pasquale Loiudice, Stefano De Cillà, Paolo Radice and Marco Nardi

    International Journal of Retina and Vitreous 2016 2:10

    Published on: 1 April 2016

  18. Original article

    Correlation of biomarkers thiobarbituric acid reactive substance, nitric oxide and central subfield and cube average thickness in diabetic retinopathy: a cross-sectional study

    To evaluate the role of thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS) and nitric oxide (NO) as biochemical biomarkers and central subfield (CST) and cube average thickness (CAT) as biomarkers for medical imag...

    Surabhi Ruia, Sandeep Saxena, S. Prasad, Shashi R. Sharma, Levent Akduman and Vinay K. Khanna

    International Journal of Retina and Vitreous 2016 2:8

    Published on: 8 March 2016

  19. Original article

    Prevalence of outer retinal tubulation in eyes with choroidal neovascularization

    Outer retinal tubulations (ORTs) are branching tubular structures located in the outer nuclear layer of the retina. The goal of this study is to determine the prevalence of ORTs observed in eyes with choroidal...

    Richard Geraldo Giachetti Filho, Leandro Cabral Zacharias, Thaís Vera Monteiro, Rony Carlos Preti and Sérgio Gianoti Pimentel

    International Journal of Retina and Vitreous 2016 2:6

    Published on: 1 March 2016

  20. Original article

    Visual response and anatomical changes on sequential spectral-domain optical coherence tomography in birdshot chorioretinopathy treated with local corticosteroid therapy

    Birdshot chorioretinopathy is a chronic bilateral inflammatory disease of unknown etiology characterized by bilateral retinal vasculitis, mild to moderate vitritis, retinal vascular leakage, cystoid macular ed...

    Marisa Gobuty, Mehreen Adhi, Sarah P. Read and Jay S. Duker

    International Journal of Retina and Vitreous 2016 2:9

    Published on: 20 February 2016

  21. Reviewer acknowledgement

    Reviewer acknowledgement 2015

    The Editors of International Journal of Retina and Vitreous would like to thank all of our reviewers, both external and Editorial Board Members, who have contributed to the journal in Volume 1 (2015) and whose va...

    Jay Duker and Eduardo Rodrigues

    International Journal of Retina and Vitreous 2016 2:7

    Published on: 16 February 2016

  22. Original article

    Choroidal thickness using EDI-OCT in adult-onset vitelliform macular dystrophy

    To compare choroidal thickness in patients with adult-onset foveomacular vitelliform dystrophy (AOFVD) with healthy subjects and to correlate choroidal thickness with age, gender and spherical equivalent.

    Renato Menezes Palácios, Thaís Sousa Mendes, Ronaldo Yuiti Sano, Davi Chen Wu, Teruo Aihara and Roberta Pereira de Almeida Manzano

    International Journal of Retina and Vitreous 2016 2:5

    Published on: 5 February 2016

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