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Table 2 Literature review of case reports analyzing choroidal osteoma characteristics

From: Multimodal imaging in choroidal osteoma

Authors Year n (eyes) Results
Shields et al. [12] 2007 22 OCT: calcified portion displayed an intact inner retina, outer retina and photoreceptors, but decalcified portion showed intact inner retina with thinned or absent outer retina and photoreceptors. BCVA was better in eyes with calcified osteomas
Margolis et al. [13] 2011 13 AF: hypoautofluorescence. Indocyanine green angiography showed relative hypofluorescence. SD-OCT: separation between outer retina and RPE within the excavation; and other cases in which the outer retina layers conform to the retina pigment eccccccpithelium within the excavation. Choroidal thickness of uninvolved choroid was thicker than normal
Freton et al. [9] 2011 11 SD-OCT: different reflectivity pattern among hyporeflective, isoreflective and hyperreflective, besides retina exhibited degenerative changes
Navajas et al. 2012 3 FD-OCT show in calcified tumors a distinctive latticework pattern resembling a spongy bone structure, decalcified areas show hyperreflective areas above Bruch membrane and absence of choroidal vessels. AF: Decalcified tumor had reduced over all fluorescence
Shields et al. [11] 2015 15 EDI-OCT: horizontal lamellar lines, hyperreflective horizontal lines, horizontal and vertical tubular lamella. Photoreceptors were intact in ossified tumors meanwhile those were atrophic or thinning in deossified osteomas
Pierro et al. [14] 2017 3 FCE and CNV in CO. OCT-A is a useful skill to detect CNV
Cennamo et al. [17] 2017 6 OCT-A: fine vascular network within the tumor. EDI-OCT: horizontal lamellar lines, horizontal and vertical tubules and speckled regions. B-Scan echography: solid mass with acoustic shadowing
  1. FCE focal choroidal excavation, CNV choroidal new vascularization, OCT-A angiography optical coherence tomography, FD-OCT Fourier domain optical coherence tomography, AF autofluorescence, SD-OCT spectral domain optical coherence tomography, RPE retinal pigment epithelium, EDI-OCT enhance depth imaging optical coherence tomography, BCVA best corrected visual acuity