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  1. To evaluate the safety and efficacy of intravitreal ziv-aflibercept (IVZ) in the management of vitreous hemorrhage (VH) in eyes with previously lasered proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR).

    Authors: Ahmad M. Mansour, Mohammed Ashraf, Khalil M. El Jawhari, Michel Farah, Ahmed Souka, Chintan Sarvaiya, Sumit Randhir Singh, Alay Banker and Jay Chhablani

    Citation: International Journal of Retina and Vitreous 2020 6:2

    Content type: Review

    Published on:

  2. Eye surgery, specifically retinal micro-surgery involves sensory and motor skill that approaches human boundaries and physiological limits for steadiness, accuracy, and the ability to detect the small forces i...

    Authors: Müller G. Urias, Niravkumar Patel, Changyan He, Ali Ebrahimi, Ji Woong Kim, Iulian Iordachita and Peter L. Gehlbach

    Citation: International Journal of Retina and Vitreous 2019 5:52

    Content type: Commentary

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  3. The ETDRS stereoscopic seven-field (7F) has been a standard imaging and grading protocol for assessment of diabetic retinopathy (DR) severity score in many clinical trials. To the best of our knowledge, the co...

    Authors: Nam V. Nguyen, Erin M. Vigil, Muhammad Hassan, Muhammad S. Halim, Sean C. Baluyot, Hugo A. Guzman, Rubbia Afridi, Diana V. Do and Yasir J. Sepah

    Citation: International Journal of Retina and Vitreous 2019 5:51

    Content type: Original article

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  4. The objective of this study is to report the incidence of retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) outliers that fall outside the screening guidelines of the American Academy of Ophthalmology (AAO) in our country.

    Authors: Juan Carlos Romo-Aguas, Ana González-H.León, Miroslava Paolah Meraz-Gutiérrez and María A. Martínez-Castellanos

    Citation: International Journal of Retina and Vitreous 2019 5(Suppl 1):53

    Content type: Review

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    This article is part of a Supplement: Volume 5 Supplement 1

  5. Antimicrobials may be injected into silicone oil-filled eyes with endophthalmitis, but the interaction with oil is unclear. The purpose of the experiment is to determine whether vancomycin, amikacin, and ampho...

    Authors: Ella H. Leung and J. Timothy Stout

    Citation: International Journal of Retina and Vitreous 2019 5:50

    Content type: Original article

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  6. Wide-field imaging plays an increasingly important role in ocular oncology clinics. The purpose of this review is to describe the commonly used wide-field imaging devices and review conditions seen in ocular o...

    Authors: Natalia F. Callaway and Prithvi Mruthyunjaya

    Citation: International Journal of Retina and Vitreous 2019 5(Suppl 1):49

    Content type: Review

    Published on:

    This article is part of a Supplement: Volume 5 Supplement 1

  7. Retinoschisis and retinal detachment are distinguished based on features in clinical examination. Even to skilled examiners, some cases may be diagnostic challenges. Infrared and wide-angle infrared reflectanc...

    Authors: Himanshu K. Banda, Anjali Shah and Gaurav K. Shah

    Citation: International Journal of Retina and Vitreous 2019 5(Suppl 1):42

    Content type: Review

    Published on:

    This article is part of a Supplement: Volume 5 Supplement 1

  8. Wide-field imaging is a newer retinal imaging technology, capturing up to 200 degrees of the retina in a single photograph. Individuals with sickle cell retinopathy commonly exhibit peripheral retinal ischemia...

    Authors: Marguerite O. Linz and Adrienne W. Scott

    Citation: International Journal of Retina and Vitreous 2019 5(Suppl 1):27

    Content type: Review

    Published on:

    This article is part of a Supplement: Volume 5 Supplement 1

  9. To describe the peripheral retinal findings associated with systemic medication toxicity and to outline the importance of ultra-widefield imaging in the detection, analysis and monitoring of these abnormalities.

    Authors: Giulia Corradetti, Sara Violanti, Adrian Au and David Sarraf

    Citation: International Journal of Retina and Vitreous 2019 5(Suppl 1):26

    Content type: Review

    Published on:

    This article is part of a Supplement: Volume 5 Supplement 1

  10. Inherited retinal degeneration (IRD) refers to a heterogenous group of progressive diseases that cause death of photoreceptor cells and subsequent vision loss. These diseases often affect the peripheral retina...

    Authors: Akio Oishi, Manabu Miyata, Shogo Numa, Yuki Otsuka, Maho Oishi and Akitaka Tsujikawa

    Citation: International Journal of Retina and Vitreous 2019 5(Suppl 1):23

    Content type: Review

    Published on:

    This article is part of a Supplement: Volume 5 Supplement 1

  11. Pediatric retinal disorders, although uncommon, can be challenging to assess in the clinic setting and often requires an exam under anesthesia. The purpose of our study was to evaluate the use of ultra-wide fi...

    Authors: Nikisha Kothari, Stacy Pineles, David Sarraf, Federico Velez, Gad Heilweil, Gary Holland, Colin A. McCannel, Tania Onclinx, Tara A. McCannel, SriniVas R. Sadda, Steven D. Schwartz and Irena Tsui

    Citation: International Journal of Retina and Vitreous 2019 5(Suppl 1):21

    Content type: Case report

    Published on:

    This article is part of a Supplement: Volume 5 Supplement 1

  12. Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is one of the leading causes of vision loss worldwide. For decades, 7-field 30-degree fundus imaging has been the gold standard for DR classification. The aim of this review article i...

    Authors: T. Y. Alvin Liu and J. Fernando Arevalo

    Citation: International Journal of Retina and Vitreous 2019 5(Suppl 1):20

    Content type: Review

    Published on:

    This article is part of a Supplement: Volume 5 Supplement 1

  13. Retinal vein occlusion (RVO) is the second most common retinal vascular disease after diabetic retinopathy. It can result in significant visual loss from complications like macula edema, retinal and iris neova...

    Authors: Colin S. Tan, Kelvin Z. Li and SriniVas R. Sadda

    Citation: International Journal of Retina and Vitreous 2019 5(Suppl 1):18

    Content type: Review

    Published on:

    This article is part of a Supplement: Volume 5 Supplement 1

  14. Sub-macular hemorrhage (SMH) is a hematic collection between the neurosensory retina and the retinal pigment epithelium; one of its causes is ocular blunt trauma, that usually affects young patients. Persistin...

    Authors: Giamberto Casini, Pasquale Loiudice, Martina Menchini, Francesco Sartini, Stefano De Cillà, Michele Figus and Marco Nardi

    Citation: International Journal of Retina and Vitreous 2019 5:48

    Content type: Review

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  15. Optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA) enables detailed, non-invasive assessment of ocular vasculature. This study uses OCTA imaging to evaluate choriocapillaris and retinal capillary perfusion densit...

    Authors: Felipe F. Conti, Weilin Song, Eduardo B. Rodrigues and Rishi P. Singh

    Citation: International Journal of Retina and Vitreous 2019 5:41

    Content type: Original article

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  16. To evaluate the epidemiology of endophthalmitis cases related to ocular trauma, including visual acuity during and 1 year after trauma, source of trauma and method of treatment.

    Authors: Luis Filipe Nakayama, Vinicius Campos Bergamo and Nilva Simeren Bueno de Moraes

    Citation: International Journal of Retina and Vitreous 2019 5:43

    Content type: Original article

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  17. Reduced retinal vascular oxygen (O2) content causes tissue hypoxia and may lead to development of vision-threatening pathologies. Since increased vessel tortuosity is an early sign for some hypoxia-implicated ret...

    Authors: Maziyar M. Khansari, Sarah L. Garvey, Shayan Farzad, Yonggang Shi and Mahnaz Shahidi

    Citation: International Journal of Retina and Vitreous 2019 5:47

    Content type: Original article

    Published on:

  18. The present study was undertaken to assess the resistive index (RI) of central retinal artery (CRA) as a bioimaging biomarker for the severity of diabetic retinopathy (DR), for the first time.

    Authors: Manila Khatri, Sandeep Saxena, Manoj Kumar, Apjit Kaur Chabbra, Shashi K. Bhasker, Ece Isin Akduman, Hang Pham and Levent Akduman

    Citation: International Journal of Retina and Vitreous 2019 5:38

    Content type: Original article

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  19. Vitamin D is a multi-functional fat-soluble metabolite essential for a vast number of physiological processes. Non-classical functions are gaining attention because of the close association of vitamin D defici...

    Authors: Gauhar Nadri, Sandeep Saxena, Abbas Ali Mahdi, Apjit Kaur, Md. Kaleem Ahmad, Pragati Garg and Carsten H. Meyer

    Citation: International Journal of Retina and Vitreous 2019 5:31

    Content type: Original article

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  20. This study aimed to determine the relationship between image quality and measurement repeatability of optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA) parameters in patients with non-proliferative diabetic reti...

    Authors: Cecília Czakó, Lilla István, Mónika Ecsedy, Zsuzsa Récsán, Gábor Sándor, Fruzsina Benyó, Hajnalka Horváth, András Papp, Miklós Resch, Ágnes Borbándy, Zoltán Zsolt Nagy and Illés Kovács

    Citation: International Journal of Retina and Vitreous 2019 5:46

    Content type: Original article

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  21. The World Health Organization (WHO) estimates that the number of individuals who lose their vision due to retinal degeneration is expected to reach 6 million annually in 2020. The retinal degenerative diseases...

    Authors: Fernando H. Lojudice, Rodrigo A. Brant Fernandes, Francesco Innocenti, Carlos E. Franciozi, Priscila Cristovam, Maurício Maia, Mari C. Sogayar and Rubens Belfort Jr

    Citation: International Journal of Retina and Vitreous 2019 5:45

    Content type: Original article

    Published on:

  22. Inverted Internal Limiting Membrane (ILM)-flap technique would seem to lead to higher closure rate and better visual acuity than traditional procedure with ILM peeling for the treatment of large macular hole (...

    Authors: Giancarlo Sborgia, Alfredo Niro, Alessandra Sborgia, Valeria Albano, Tiziana Tritto, Luigi Sborgia, Valentina Pastore, Rossella Donghia, Ermete Giancipoli, Nicola Recchimurzo, Francesco Boscia and Giovanni Alessio

    Citation: International Journal of Retina and Vitreous 2019 5:44

    Content type: Original article

    Published on:

  23. To report a case of a chronic steroid user male patient who developed local abscesses caused by M. fortuitum and concomitant asymptomatic choroidal granuloma.

    Authors: João Pinto da Silva Neto, Kyra Nhayanna Coutinho Machado and Luiz Roisman

    Citation: International Journal of Retina and Vitreous 2019 5:37

    Content type: Case report

    Published on:

  24. With increasing incidence of yellow fever, mass campaign vaccinations are underway and little ophthalmological alterations have been reported in literature, specially regarding non-combined vaccines.

    Authors: Paula M. Marinho, Heloisa Nascimento, Andre Romano, Cristina Muccioli and Rubens Belfort Jr.

    Citation: International Journal of Retina and Vitreous 2019 5:30

    Content type: Case report

    Published on:

  25. Elevated serum vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) levels are associated with diabetic retinopathy (DR). Serum VEGF levels correlate with vitreous levels. Neuroretinal changes occur even before the appea...

    Authors: Sukriti Ahuja, Sandeep Saxena, Levent Akduman, Carsten H. Meyer, Peter Kruzliak and Vinay K. Khanna

    Citation: International Journal of Retina and Vitreous 2019 5:29

    Content type: Original article

    Published on:

  26. To evaluate the in vivo and in vitro toxicity of a new formulation of liposome-encapsulated sirolimus (LES).

    Authors: Murilo Batista Abud, Ricardo Noguera Louzada, David Leonardo Cruvinel Isaac, Leonardo Gomes Souza, Ricardo Gomes dos Reis, Eliana Martins Lima and Marcos Pereira de Ávila

    Citation: International Journal of Retina and Vitreous 2019 5:35

    Content type: Original article

    Published on:

  27. To assess the number of eyes with silicone oil in the vitreous after intravitreal injection.

    Authors: Gustavo Barreto Melo, Celso de Souza Dias Junior, Fábio Barreto Morais, Alexandre Lima Cardoso, Ana Galrão Almeida Figueiredo, Acácio Alves Souza Lima Filho, Eduardo Büchele Rodrigues, Geoffrey Guy Emerson and Maurício Maia

    Citation: International Journal of Retina and Vitreous 2019 5:34

    Content type: Original article

    Published on:

  28. Increased mineralocorticoid activity is one of the plausible causes of chronic central serous chorioretinopathy (CSCR) and mineralocorticoid inhibitors such as eplerenone have been investigated as its potentia...

    Authors: Hamid-Reza Moein, Lauren W. Bierman, Eduardo A. Novais, Carlos Moreira-Neto, Caroline R. Baumal, Adam Rogers, Jay S. Duker and André J. Witkin

    Citation: International Journal of Retina and Vitreous 2019 5:39

    Content type: Original article

    Published on:

  29. Functional and anatomical evaluation of patients with ischemic diabetic macular edema after monthly injections of Bevacizumab.

    Authors: Felipe Pereira, Bruno Rebello Godoy, Mauricio Maia and Caio Vinicius Regatieri

    Citation: International Journal of Retina and Vitreous 2019 5:24

    Content type: Original article

    Published on:

  30. To investigate whether neovascularization may arise and be detectable in drusen, as reported in histopathologic studies, by OCTA prior to developing exudation and to assess its prevalence in a cohort of patien...

    Authors: Chris Or, Jeffrey S. Heier, David Boyer, David Brown, Sumit Shah, Agha Yasin Alibhai, James G. Fujimoto and Nadia Waheed

    Citation: International Journal of Retina and Vitreous 2019 5:36

    Content type: Original article

    Published on:

  31. Primary vitreoretinal lymphoma (VRL) is a rare disease with 30–380 new cases in the United States per year. Its insidious process and spread to the central nervous system (CNS) leads to a mean 5-year survival ...

    Authors: Vlad Diaconita, Heba Rihani, Virginia Mares, Marcio B. Nehemy, Sophie J. Bakri and Jose S. Pulido

    Citation: International Journal of Retina and Vitreous 2019 5:19

    Content type: Case report

    Published on:

  32. Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a systemic inflammatory disease and is classified as Crohn’s disease (CD) or ulcerative colitis (UC) depending on the extent of gastrointestinal tract involvement. IBD can b...

    Authors: Luis Filpe Nakayama, Vinicius Campos Bergamo, Marina Lourenco Conti, Nikoly Tigani Fares, Livia Almeida Costa, Orlando Ambrogini Jr. and Nilva Simeren Bueno de Moraes

    Citation: International Journal of Retina and Vitreous 2019 5:16

    Content type: Original article

    Published on:

  33. ASP8232 is a potent and specific small molecule vascular adhesion protein-1 (VAP-1) inhibitor. This study evaluated the effect of ASP8232 on excess retinal thickness when given alone or in combination with ran...

    Authors: Quan Dong Nguyen, Yasir J. Sepah, Brian Berger, David Brown, Diana V. Do, Alberto Garcia-Hernandez, Sunil Patel, Firas M. Rahhal, Yevgeniy Shildkrot and Ronny W. Renfurm

    Citation: International Journal of Retina and Vitreous 2019 5:28

    Content type: Original article

    Published on:

  34. The position of the intraocular lens (IOL) is a major factor that affects the final visual acuity after cataract surgery. However, no prospective study has compared the IOL positions associated with the suture...

    Authors: Bruna Ferraço Marianelli, Thaís Sousa Mendes, Roberta Pereira de Almeida Manzano, Patrícia Novita Garcia and Ivan Corso Teixeira

    Citation: International Journal of Retina and Vitreous 2019 5:33

    Content type: Original article

    Published on:

  35. Although previous studies have evaluated the effect of anti-VEGF therapies for central retinal vein occlusion (CRVO) patients, the majority of previous studies have excluded or included a very small number of ...

    Authors: Leangelo Hall, Luma Paiva Frizzera, Laura Fernandes Coelho, Pedro Carlos Carricondo, Maria Kiyoko Oyamada, Sergio Luis Gianotti Pimentel and Maria Fernanda Abalem

    Citation: International Journal of Retina and Vitreous 2019 5:32

    Content type: Original article

    Published on:

  36. Diabetic macular edema (DME) is an important cause of vision loss and despite the anatomical and functional improvement achieved with treatment, there are reports of persistent DME regardless of continuous ant...

    Authors: Amy S. Babiuch, Thais F. Conti, Felipe F. Conti, Fabiana Q. Silva, Aleksandra Rachitskaya, Alex Yuan and Rishi P. Singh

    Citation: International Journal of Retina and Vitreous 2019 5:17

    Content type: Original article

    Published on:

  37. To measure the choroidal thickness in patients with high myopia from staphyloma using swept source OCT (SS-OCT) in Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study (ETDRS) fields and compare to normal cohort. The st...

    Authors: K. V. Chalam and Kumar Sambhav

    Citation: International Journal of Retina and Vitreous 2019 5:14

    Content type: Original article

    Published on:

  38. 27-gauge (27G) and 25-gauge (25G) transconjunctival sutureless vitrectomy (TSV) were considered equal about safety, effectiveness and vitrectomy time for the treatment of rhegmatogenous retinal detachment (RRD...

    Authors: Giancarlo Sborgia, Alfredo Niro, Luigi Sborgia, Maria Oliva Grassi, Samuele Gigliola, Mario R. Romano, Francesco Boscia, Alessandra Sborgia and Giovanni Alessio

    Citation: International Journal of Retina and Vitreous 2019 5:13

    Content type: Original article

    Published on:

  39. Optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA) is a non-invasive tool for imaging and quantifying the choroidal vasculature and perfusion state. In this index study, OCTA was used to investigate diurnal chang...

    Authors: Felix Rommel, Fynn Siegfried, Jan A. M. Sochurek, Matthias Rothe, Max P. Brinkmann, Maximilian Kurz, Michelle Prasuhn, Salvatore Grisanti and Mahdy Ranjbar

    Citation: International Journal of Retina and Vitreous 2019 5:12

    Content type: Original article

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  40. To evaluate the benefits of lutein in preventing retinal phototoxicity generated by xenon light sources during vitreoretinal surgery.

    Authors: Anderson Teixeira, Eduardo A. Novais, Emmerson Badaró, Acácio Lima, Michel Eid Farah and Rubens Belfort Jr.

    Citation: International Journal of Retina and Vitreous 2019 5:11

    Content type: Original article

    Published on:

  41. To determine whether aflibercept (Eylea; Regeneron Pharmaceuticals, Inc., Tarrytown, NY) could continue to extend the macular edema free interval in patients on a treat and extend (TAE) with non-ischemic centr...

    Authors: Rahul N. Khurana, Louis K. Chang, Alok S. Bansal, James D. Palmer, Chengqing Wu and Mark R. Wieland

    Citation: International Journal of Retina and Vitreous 2019 5:10

    Content type: Original article

    Published on:

  42. Stargardt disease (STGD) and age-related macular degeneration (AMD) share clinical and pathophysiological features. In AMD, macular hyperpigmentary changes are associated to a worse prognosis. The purpose of t...

    Authors: Maria Fernanda Abalem, Amro A. Omari, Dana Schlegel, Naheed W. Khan and Thiran Jayasundera

    Citation: International Journal of Retina and Vitreous 2019 5:9

    Content type: Original article

    Published on:

  43. A paracentesis prior to an intravitreal injection is a very safe procedure and can prevent IOP-spikes after injections. As these spikes pose the risk of inducing glaucomatous changes particularly in patients ...

    Authors: Sandeep Saxena, Timothy Y. Lai, Hideki Koizumi, Michel E. Farah, Daniela Ferrara, David Pelayes, Tomohito Sato, Carsten H. Meyer and Timothy Murray

    Citation: International Journal of Retina and Vitreous 2019 5:8

    Content type: Commentary

    Published on:

  44. Degenerative retinal disease leads to significant visual morbidity worldwide. Diabetic retinopathy and macular degeneration are leading causes of blindness in the developed world. While current therapies for t...

    Authors: Parker E. Ludwig, S. Caleb Freeman and Adam C. Janot

    Citation: International Journal of Retina and Vitreous 2019 5:7

    Content type: Review

    Published on:

  45. To describe the clinical and multimodal imaging findings of a Brazilian family with Best vitelliform macular dystrophy.

    Authors: Carolina Pádua Rocha de Souza, Luiz Guilherme Marchesi Mello, Fernando Gomez and Eduardo Morizot

    Citation: International Journal of Retina and Vitreous 2019 5:6

    Content type: Original article

    Published on:

  46. To report the clinical course and the multimodal retinal imaging of a spontaneous retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) tear in a type 2 choroidal neovascularization (CNV) secondary to age-related macular degenerat...

    Authors: Giuseppe Casalino, Vasuki Sivagnanavel, Samir Dowlut, Pearse A. Keane and Usha Chakravarthy

    Citation: International Journal of Retina and Vitreous 2019 5:4

    Content type: Case report

    Published on:


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