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  1. Prenatal exposure to Cannabis is a worldwide growing problem. Although retina is part of the central nervous system, the impact of maternal Cannabis use on the retinal development and its postnatal consequence...

    Authors: Paulo Roberto Arruda Zantut, Mariana Matera Veras, Sarah Gomes Menezes Benevenutto, Angélica Mendonça Vaz Safatle, Ricardo Augusto Pecora, Victor Yuji Yariwake, Janaina Iannicelli Torres, Gustavo Sakuno, Marco Antonio Garcia Martins, Aline Adriana Bolzan, Walter Yukihiko Takahashi, Paulo Hilario Nascimento Saldiva and Francisco Max Damico

    Citation: International Journal of Retina and Vitreous 2021 7:45

    Content type: Original article

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  2. The idea to use smartphone for fundus photography was put forward in 2010. Over the last decade, there has been a dramatic development in this field. This narrative review focuses on the principle of smartphon...

    Authors: Usama Iqbal

    Citation: International Journal of Retina and Vitreous 2021 7:44

    Content type: Review

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  3. To develop and validate a questionnaire for the investigation of non-adherence (NA) barriers in patients receiving intravitreal injection (IVT).

    Authors: Sabrina Müller, Sophia Junker, Thomas Wilke, Albrecht Lommatzsch, Alexander K. Schuster, Hakan Kaymak, Christoph Ehlken and Focke Ziemssen

    Citation: International Journal of Retina and Vitreous 2021 7:43

    Content type: Original article

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  4. The aim of this paper is to present a novel bimanual double aspiration technique to avoid intraoperative giant tear slippage. The major problem of giant retinal tears (GRT) surgery is the mobility of the poste...

    Authors: Javier Placeres Daban, Daniel Artieda García, Sebastian Yaluff Portilla and José Isidro Belda Sanchís

    Citation: International Journal of Retina and Vitreous 2021 7:42

    Content type: Original article

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  5. To report a case of unilateral acute posterior multifocal placoid pigment epitheliopathy (APMPPE) in a Hispanic convalescent COVID-19 female patient.

    Authors: Francisco Olguín-Manríquez, Linda Cernichiaro-Espinosa, Arturo Olguín-Manríquez, Rebeca Manríquez-Arias, Erick Omar Flores-Villalobos and Perla Ayumi Kawakami-Campos

    Citation: International Journal of Retina and Vitreous 2021 7:41

    Content type: Case report

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  6. Idiopathic epiretinal membrane (iERM) is a common retinal disease in the elderly population. The exact pathogenesis of iERM is unknown. The present study aimed to evaluate the relationship between aqueous flar...

    Authors: Yasuko Ikegami, Jiro Numaga, Saori Ue and Tomohiro Sano

    Citation: International Journal of Retina and Vitreous 2021 7:40

    Content type: Original article

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  7. To evaluate the results of pars plana vitrectomy (PPV) and silicone oil (SO) tamponade with or without encircling scleral band for repair of rhegmatogenous retinal detachment (RRD) in children with buphthalmos.

    Authors: Hammouda Hamdy Ghoraba, Sameh Mohamed El Gouhary, Ali Ahmed Ali Ghali, Mohamed Ahmed Abdelhafez, Adel Galal Zaky, Mahmoud Leila, Mohamed Amin Heikal and Hosam Othman Mansour

    Citation: International Journal of Retina and Vitreous 2021 7:39

    Content type: Original article

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  8. The purpose of the current study is to report the anatomical and functional results of off-label human amniotic membrane graft as primary intervention to repair large to giant macular holes and in reoperations...

    Authors: Magno A. Ferreira, André Maia, André J. Machado, Raquel E. A. Ferreira, Luiz Felipe Hagemann, Pedro Hélio E. Ribeiro Júnior and Flávio A. Rezende

    Citation: International Journal of Retina and Vitreous 2021 7:38

    Content type: Original article

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  9. Intraocular inflammation is an uncommon but potentially vision-threatening adverse event related to anti-VEGF therapy. This is of increasing importance given both the volume of injections performed, as well as...

    Authors: William J. Anderson, Natasha Ferreira Santos da Cruz, Luiz Henrique Lima, Geoffrey G. Emerson, Eduardo Büchele Rodrigues and Gustavo Barreto Melo

    Citation: International Journal of Retina and Vitreous 2021 7:37

    Content type: Review

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  10. To analyze the relationship between the central foveal thickness (CFT) and the integrity of the ellipsoid portion of inner segments (EPIS) and interdigitating zone (IZ) retinal layers in the visual outcome of ...

    Authors: Carlos Alvarez-Guzman, Andres Bustamante-Arias, Maria F. Colorado-Zavala and Alejandro Rodriguez-Garcia

    Citation: International Journal of Retina and Vitreous 2021 7:36

    Content type: Original article

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  11. The main purpose of this study is to compare the vitreous hemorrhage (VH) score reduction and visual acuity outcomes in patients with VH secondary to proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR) treated with intra...

    Authors: Danilo Moyses Jorge, José Edísio da Silva Tavares Neto, Omero Benedicto Poli-Neto, Ingrid U. Scott and Rodrigo Jorge

    Citation: International Journal of Retina and Vitreous 2021 7:35

    Content type: Original article

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  12. Pemigatinib is an inhibitor of the fibroblast growth factor receptor (FGFR), recently approved for the treatment of cholangiocarcinoma. FGFR retinopathy is a newly recognized entity, with only two other FGFR i...

    Authors: Oleg Alekseev, Effy Ojuok and Scott Cousins

    Citation: International Journal of Retina and Vitreous 2021 7:34

    Content type: Case report

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  13. Fibrin glue is an absorbable blood-derived product, a biological tissue adhesive which imitates the final stages of the coagulation cascade, it produces a firm clot, forming a seal along the whole length of th...

    Authors: Gabriela Lopezcarasa-Hernandez, Jose-Francisco Perez-Vazquez, Jose-Luis Guerrero-Naranjo and Maria A. Martinez-Castellanos

    Citation: International Journal of Retina and Vitreous 2021 7:33

    Content type: Original article

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  14. To compare imaging modalities for visualizing primary epiretinal membrane (ERM) with each other and with intraoperative digital images (IDI) after blue staining.

    Authors: Elise Philippakis, Raphaël Thouvenin, Sarra Gattoussi, Aude Couturier and Ramin Tadayoni

    Citation: International Journal of Retina and Vitreous 2021 7:32

    Content type: Original article

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  15. The surgical indication for lamellar macular holes (LMH) is controversial due to a misclassification of different macular diseases. A consensus based on an optical coherence tomography (OCT) definition has rec...

    Authors: Ismael Chehaibou, Elise Philippakis, Valérie Mané, Carlo Lavia, Aude Couturier, Alain Gaudric and Ramin Tadayoni

    Citation: International Journal of Retina and Vitreous 2021 7:31

    Content type: Original article

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  16. Diabetic retinopathy (DR), a microvascular complication of diabetes, is the leading cause of visual impairment in people aged 20–65 years and can go undetected until vision is irreversibly lost. There is a nee...

    Authors: David S. Boyer, Joerg F. Rippmann, Michael S. Ehrlich, Remko A. Bakker, Victor Chong and Quan Dong Nguyen

    Citation: International Journal of Retina and Vitreous 2021 7:30

    Content type: Review

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  17. The following is a response to the recent review article by Girsang and colleagues (Int J Retina Vitreous. 2020;6:46), who describe concept and application of relaxing radial retinectomy for retinal detachment...

    Authors: Anna Grabowska, James E. Neffendorf and Tom H. Williamson

    Citation: International Journal of Retina and Vitreous 2021 7:29

    Content type: Letter to the Editor

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  18. To report a case of acute exudative polymorphous paraneoplastic vitelliform maculopathy in a patient with a history of choroidal melanoma, with metastases to the pancreas, liver, and central nervous system.

    Authors: Aluisio Rosa Gameiro Filho, Guilherme Sturzeneker, Ever Ernesto Caso Rodriguez, André Maia, Melina Correia Morales and Rubens N. Belfort

    Citation: International Journal of Retina and Vitreous 2021 7:27

    Content type: Case report

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  19. Despite the good outcomes achieved with intravitreal angiogenic therapy, a subset of neovascular age-related macular degeneration (AMD) patients experience resistance to therapy after repeated injections. Swit...

    Authors: Mohamed A. Hamid, Nizar S. Abdelfattah, Jamshid Salamzadeh, Sahar T. A. Abdelaziz, Ahmed M. Sabry, Khaled M. Mourad, Azza A. Shehab and Baruch D. Kuppermann

    Citation: International Journal of Retina and Vitreous 2021 7:26

    Content type: Original article

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  20. Inherited retinal diseases (IRDs) are visually debilitating conditions that affect families worldwide. They require extensive clinical testing, examination, and patient and family counseling, which are frequen...

    Authors: Ahmad Al-Moujahed, Aarushi Kumar, Teja Chemudupati, Stephen H. Tsang and Vinit B. Mahajan

    Citation: International Journal of Retina and Vitreous 2021 7:25

    Content type: Letter to the Editor

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  21. Razumab™ (world’s first biosimilar ranibizumab) is approved for several macular disorders including wet age-related macular degeneration (AMD). We evaluated the safety and efficacy of biosimilar ranibizumab in...

    Authors: Shashikant Sharma, Vishali Gupta, Aniruddha Maiti, Sribhargava Natesh, Sandeep Saxena, Vivek Dave, Vimal Parmar, Raju Sampangi, Hemanth Murthy, Sandhya Dharwadkar, Naresh Kumar Yadav, Shrinivas Joshi, Rahul Mayor, Dhanashree Ratra, Soumyava Basu, Neha Goel…

    Citation: International Journal of Retina and Vitreous 2021 7:24

    Content type: Original article

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  22. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the incidence of vitreomacular adhesion (VMA) release after anti-VEGF therapy for the treatment of diabetic macular edema (DME) and to evaluate further changes in outc...

    Authors: Carlos E. Veloso, Daniel N. Brocchi, Rishi P. Singh and Márcio B. Nehemy

    Citation: International Journal of Retina and Vitreous 2021 7:23

    Content type: Original article

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  23. Endolaser probes have been designed and sold for single-use only. However, in Brazil, they are not included in the list of single-use medical products that are prohibited from being reprocessed and could poten...

    Authors: Leandro Cabral Zacharias, Lívia da Silva Conci, Bianca Partezani Megnis, Janaina Guerra Falabretti, Taurino dos Santos Rodrigues Neto, Epitácio Dias da Silva Neto, Rony Carlos Preti, Leonardo Proveti Cunha and Mário Luiz Ribeiro Monteiro

    Citation: International Journal of Retina and Vitreous 2021 7:22

    Content type: Original article

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  24. To report four cases with interesting anatomical presentations of multilayer macular hemorrhages with preretinal hemorrhage possibly preventing subretinal involvement of the macular area.

    Authors: Priscila A. Nascimento, Cristina N. Carbajo, Luisa S. M. Mendonça, Juliana T. Okimoto, Bogdan C. M. Barros and Julio Z. Abucham-Neto

    Citation: International Journal of Retina and Vitreous 2021 7:21

    Content type: Case report

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  25. To evaluate the impact of age-related macular degeneration (AMD) on the quality of life (QoL) in a Brazilian population using The National Eye Institute-Visual Function Questionnaire-25 (NEI-VFQ-25).

    Authors: Alicia Buffoni Roque, Géssica Fernandes da Silva Borges, Ricardo Yuji Abe, Osias Francisco de Souza, Maria Cecília Machado, Tamara Ferreira, Newton Kara José and José Paulo Cabral de Vasconcellos

    Citation: International Journal of Retina and Vitreous 2021 7:20

    Content type: Original article

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  26. To evaluate the contribution of large-cube 30° × 25° optical coherence tomography (OCT) in the characterization of diabetic macular edema (DME) by assessing its extent and the presence of additional retinal ed...

    Authors: Amir Mahdjoubi, Youcef Bousnina, Fatma-Samia Bendib, Faiza Bensmaine, Wafa Idlefqih, Sadri Chahed and Amina Ghezzaz

    Citation: International Journal of Retina and Vitreous 2021 7:19

    Content type: Original article

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  27. The management of an outbreak of endophthalmitis associated with intravitreal bevacizumab represents a challenging real-time process involving identification of cases, treatment and mitigation measures during ...

    Authors: Alexander C. Barnes, Stephen L. Rathbun, Sanjana Kuthyar, G. Baker Hubbard III, Chris Bergstrom, Steven Yeh and Mohan N. Iyer

    Citation: International Journal of Retina and Vitreous 2021 7:18

    Content type: Original article

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  28. To explore the association of clinical characteristics and retinal microstructural features on optical coherence tomography in predicting 1-year visual response following intravitreal bevacizumab injections in...

    Authors: Janejit Choovuthayakorn, Apichat Tantraworasin, Phichayut Phinyo, Jayanton Patumanond, Paradee Kunavisarut, Titipol Srisomboon, Pawara Winaikosol, Direk Patikulsila, Voraporn Chaikitmongkol, Nawat Watanachai and Kessara Pathanapitoon

    Citation: International Journal of Retina and Vitreous 2021 7:17

    Content type: Original article

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  29. To evaluate changes in anterior segment morphology on anterior segment optical coherence tomography (AS-OCT) following pars plana vitrectomy (PPV) without tamponade.

    Authors: Alireza Khodabande, Massood Mohammadi, Hamid Riazi-Esfahani, Shahab Karami, Massood Mirghorbani and Bobeck S. Modjtahedi

    Citation: International Journal of Retina and Vitreous 2021 7:15

    Content type: Original article

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  30. Acute post-cataract endophthalmitis (APE) is a rare complication potentially causing irreversible visual loss. A 10-year study of APE was conducted to determine its incidence, microbiological spectra and antib...

    Authors: Juliana Mika Kato, Tatiana Tanaka, Luiza Manhezi Shin de Oliveira, Maura Salaroli de Oliveira, Flavia Rossi, Mauro Goldbaum, Sergio Luis Gianotti Pimentel, João Nóbrega de Almeida Junior and Joyce Hisae Yamamoto

    Citation: International Journal of Retina and Vitreous 2021 7:14

    Content type: Original article

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  31. To describe the features of multimodal imaging and the diagnostic role of en face OCT in the paracentral acute middle maculopathy (PAMM) spectrum.

    Authors: Hamid Riazi-Esfahani, Elias Khalili Pour, Kaveh Fadakar, Nazanin Ebrahimiadib, Fariba Ghassemi, Ramin Nourinia, Hassan Khojasteh, Behnoosh Attarian, Hooshang Faghihi and Hamid Ahmadieh

    Citation: International Journal of Retina and Vitreous 2021 7:13

    Content type: Original article

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  32. The aim of this article is to report a rare case in which a patient presented symptomatic silicon oil brain migration, documented by MRI, several years after vitreoretinal surgery.

    Authors: Thiago José Muniz Machado Mazzeo, Gabriel Almeida Veiga Jacob, Paulo Henrique Horizonte, Henrique Monteiro Leber and André Marcelo Vieira Gomes

    Citation: International Journal of Retina and Vitreous 2021 7:10

    Content type: Case report

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  33. To investigate risk factors, imaging characteristics, and treatment responses of cystoid macular edema (CME) after rhegmatogenous retinal detachment (RRD) repair.

    Authors: Cameron Pole, Ismael Chehaibou, Andrea Govetto, Sean Garrity, Steven D. Schwartz and Jean-Pierre Hubschman

    Citation: International Journal of Retina and Vitreous 2021 7:9

    Content type: Original article

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  34. Clinical studies have shown that epiretinal membranes (ERM) as well as abnormalities of the central foveal bouquet (CB) can be classified in different stages according to their morphological appearance. Furthe...

    Authors: Max P. Brinkmann, Stephan Michels, Carolin Brinkmann, Felix Rommel, Mahdy Ranjbar, Nicole Graf Johansen and Matthias Becker

    Citation: International Journal of Retina and Vitreous 2021 7:7

    Content type: Original article

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  35. POEMS (polyneuropathy, organomegaly, endocrinopathy, myeloma protein, skin changes) syndrome is a rare blood disorder with multi-system involvement. The cause is unknown. It is marked by elevated plasma cells,...

    Authors: Andrew Rising Carey and Praveen Jeyaseelan

    Citation: International Journal of Retina and Vitreous 2021 7:6

    Content type: Case report

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  36. Laser ablation of the avascular peripheral retina has been the standard method of ROP treatment. Intravitreal anti-VEGF is useful in the management of ROP patients, especially for aggressive posterior ROP. How...

    Authors: Fatemeh Bazvand, Hamid Riazi-Esfahani, Ahmad Mirshahi, Alireza Khodabande, Hasan Khojastheh, Afsar Dastjani Farahani, Ramak Roohipourmoallai, Marjan Imani, Hooshang Faghihi, Nazanin Ebrahimi Adib and Mohammadreza Mehrabi Bahar

    Citation: International Journal of Retina and Vitreous 2021 7:5

    Content type: Original article

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  37. Diabetic macular edema (DME) is a major cause of visual impairment and its treatment is a public health challenge. Even though anti-angiogenic drugs are the gold-standard treatment, they are not ideal and subt...

    Authors: Renato M. Passos, Fernando K. Malerbi, Marindia Rocha, Maurício Maia and Michel E. Farah

    Citation: International Journal of Retina and Vitreous 2021 7:4

    Content type: Original article

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  38. To report the observation of the choriocapillaris island (CCI) on optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA) in eyes with active central serous chorioretinopathy (CSCR), and to investigate its associated ...

    Authors: Rania G. Estawro, Alaa E. Fayed, Teresa K. Gerges and Dina N. Baddar

    Citation: International Journal of Retina and Vitreous 2021 7:3

    Content type: Original article

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  39. To describe the incidence, clinical characteristics, and treatment outcomes of endophthalmitis after pars plana vitrectomy (PPV) with recycled single-use devices. The recommended sterilization process as well ...

    Authors: Sukhum Silpa-archa, Kwanchanoke Kumsiang and Janine M. Preble

    Citation: International Journal of Retina and Vitreous 2021 7:2

    Content type: Original article

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  40. Classic serpiginous choroiditis (SC) usually begins in the peripapillary area and spreads centrifugally, however, in some patients, the lesion can arise in the macular region. An association between lesions re...

    Authors: Raul N. G. Vianna, Vinicius Vanzan, Maria Luisa Gois da Fonsêca and Leonardo Cravo

    Citation: International Journal of Retina and Vitreous 2021 7:1

    Content type: Case report

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  41. To report normal values of macular and choroidal thickness obtained from a healthy Hispanic population using Optovue (Optovue Inc, Freemont CA, USA) spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT).

    Authors: Diana A. Cortés, Daniela Roca, Pedro Iván Navarro and Francisco J. Rodríguez

    Citation: International Journal of Retina and Vitreous 2020 6:66

    Content type: Original article

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  42. The authors have retracted this article [1] for legal reasons. Therefore the contents of this article are no longer available. The authors have been invited to submit a new version of the article. All authors ...

    Authors: Mohammad Ali Sadiq, Muhammad Sohail Halim, Muha mmad Hassan, Neil Onghanseng, Irmak Karaca, Aniruddha Agarwal, Rubbia Afridi, Yasir J. Sepah, Diana V. Do and Quan Dong Nguyen

    Citation: International Journal of Retina and Vitreous 2020 6:65

    Content type: Retraction Note

    Published on:

    The original article was published in International Journal of Retina and Vitreous 2020 6:29

  43. To compare the therapeutic effects of subthreshold micropulse laser (SML) versus intravitreal injection of ranibizumab in treatment of diabetic macular edema (DME) both anatomically using optical coherence tom...

    Authors: Amr Abdelrahman, Wagiha Massoud, Ahmed Mohamed Kamal Elshafei, Mahmoud Genidy and Raafat Mohyeldeen Abdelrahman Abdallah

    Citation: International Journal of Retina and Vitreous 2020 6:63

    Content type: Original article

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  44. To measure optic nerve head (ONH) blood perfusion using optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA) at various stages of diabetic retinopathy (DR).

    Authors: Fariba Ghassemi, Sahar Berijani, Ramak Roohipoor, Masoumeh Mohebbi, Ameneh Babeli, Alireza Gholizadeh and Siamak Sabour

    Citation: International Journal of Retina and Vitreous 2020 6:62

    Content type: Original article

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