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  1. Recent advances in optical coherence tomography (OCT) technology allow a more accurate choroidal visualization. The aim of this study is to provide histochemical analysis with induced fluorescence images of th...

    Authors: Raffaele Nuzzi, Federico Tridico, Alessandro Marchese and Francesco Bandello

    Citation: International Journal of Retina and Vitreous 2020 6:61

    Content type: Original article

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  2. Despite the constant refinement of techniques and surgical aids, extremely large and refractory macular holes continue to have poor surgical outcomes with the current standard of care. The objective of the pre...

    Authors: Sergio Rojas-Juárez, Javier Cisneros-Cortés, Abel Ramirez-Estudillo and Raul Velez-Montoya

    Citation: International Journal of Retina and Vitreous 2020 6:60

    Content type: Original article

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  3. Blood is one of the main absorbers in the near-infrared spectrum and thus retinal vessels appear dark in near-infrared reflectance (NIR) images. Proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR) is characterized by abn...

    Authors: Sara Vaz-Pereira, Manuel Monteiro-Grillo and Michael Engelbert

    Citation: International Journal of Retina and Vitreous 2020 6:59

    Content type: Original article

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  4. The basis of retinal detachment repair is sealing the retinal breaks. In order to seal the retinal breaks, chorioretinal adhesion around these lesions has to be achieved. Laser retinopexy is not immediate thus...

    Authors: Mario Saravia, Luis Zeman and Alejandro Berra

    Citation: International Journal of Retina and Vitreous 2020 6:58

    Content type: Original article

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  5. Intravitreal injection of medications is one of the most common procedures performed in ophthalmology. Intravitreal anti-VEGF agents are currently the chosen treatment for ocular fundus diseases, including age...

    Authors: Renata Moreto, Francyne Veiga Cyrino and Rodrigo Jorge

    Citation: International Journal of Retina and Vitreous 2020 6:57

    Content type: Original article

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  6. To evaluate visual and safety outcomes for 25-gauge (25G) and 27-gauge (27G) micro-incision vitrectomy platforms (MIVS) for the treatment of epiretinal membrane and full-thickness macular holes.

    Authors: Gordon T. Brown, Sangeethabalasri Pugazhendhi, Robert M. Beardsley, John W. Karth, Peter A. Karth and Allan A. Hunter

    Citation: International Journal of Retina and Vitreous 2020 6:56

    Content type: Original article

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  7. Cat scratch disease is a systemic infectious illness caused by the bacterium Bartonella henselae. The most common ophthalmological involvement due to infection by Bartonella is Parinaud oculoglandular syndrome, w...

    Authors: Paulo Alberto Cervi Rosa, Luis Filipe Nakayama, Vinicius Campos Bergamo, Dante Akira Kondo Kuroiwa and Nilva Simeren Bueno de Moraes

    Citation: International Journal of Retina and Vitreous 2020 6:54

    Content type: Case report

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  8. To draw comparisons between spectral domain optic coherence tomography (SD-OCT) features of subretinal silicon oil (SO), perfluoro-n-octane (PFO) or C3F8 gas.

    Authors: Leandro Cabral Zacharias, Epitácio Dias da Silva Neto, Taurino dos Santos Rodrigues Neto, José Ronaldo Lima de Carvalho Júnior, Rony Carlos Preti, Leonardo Provetti Cunha, Tatiana Tanaka and Mário Luiz Ribeiro Monteiro

    Citation: International Journal of Retina and Vitreous 2020 6:53

    Content type: Original article

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  9. Retinal reattachment surgery requires clear visualization of the posterior segment for optimal outcomes. Select patients may benefit most from primary scleral buckling without vitrectomy, but lack adequate pos...

    Authors: Sean M. Platt and Andrew J. Barkmeier

    Citation: International Journal of Retina and Vitreous 2020 6:52

    Content type: Case report

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  10. To report the prevalence of uveal melanoma in a Hospital database in Brazil over the period of 16 years (2000 to 2016).

    Authors: Evandro Lucena, Daniel Cohen Goldemberg, Luiz Claudio Santos Thuler and Andreia Cristina de Melo

    Citation: International Journal of Retina and Vitreous 2020 6:51

    Content type: Original article

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  11. The aim of our study was to investigate a possible association between macular perfusion status and retinal ischemia and leakage up to far peripheral retinal areas in eyes with early to advanced stages of diab...

    Authors: Dorottya Hajdu, Aleksandra Sedova, Felix Datlinger, Julia Hafner, Irene Steiner, Katharina Kriechbaum, Christoph Scholda, Stefan Sacu, Ursula Schmidt-Erfurth and Andreas Pollreisz

    Citation: International Journal of Retina and Vitreous 2020 6:50

    Content type: Original article

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  12. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the area of retinal neovascularization in patients with treatment-naïve proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR) as measured by optical coherence tomography angiograph...

    Authors: Anna Stage Vergmann, Kristian Tølbøl Sørensen, Thomas Lee Torp, Ryo Kawasaki, Tien Wong, Tunde Peto and Jakob Grauslund

    Citation: International Journal of Retina and Vitreous 2020 6:49

    Content type: Original article

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  13. Retinal vascular diseases such as neovascular age-related macular degeneration, diabetic retinopathy and/or diabetic macular edema, and retinal vein occlusion with macular edema—share several key pathophysiolo...

    Authors: Quan Dong Nguyen, Jeffrey S. Heier, Diana V. Do, Adam C. Mirando, Niranjan B. Pandey, Huan Sheng and Theresa Heah

    Citation: International Journal of Retina and Vitreous 2020 6:48

    Content type: Review

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  14. Although fluorescein angiography (FA) is a frequently used imaging modality in patients with non-infectious uveitis (NIU), it has not been reliably used for objective assessment of posterior segment inflammato...

    Authors: Mohammad Ali Sadiq, Muhammad Hassan, Rubbia Afridi, Muhammad Sohail Halim, Diana V. Do, Yasir J. Sepah and Quan Dong Nguyen

    Citation: International Journal of Retina and Vitreous 2020 6:47

    Content type: Original article

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  15. To revisit the concept of retinectomy and the theory of mechanical forces on the retina occurring in rhegmatogenous retinal detachment (RRD) and to describe the potential application of radial retinectomy in R...

    Authors: Waldensius Girsang, Dwi C. R. Sari, Wahyu Srigutomo, Tjahjono D. Gondhowiardjo and Muhammad B. Sasongko

    Citation: International Journal of Retina and Vitreous 2020 6:46

    Content type: Review

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  16. Since the beginning of the Internet, new ways of providing medical education have emerged. Social media networks are one of the most influential communication tools and allow content sharing, collaborative mod...

    Authors: Ricardo Luz Leitão Guerra

    Citation: International Journal of Retina and Vitreous 2020 6:44

    Content type: Commentary

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  17. Conventional vitrectomy technique for macular hole surgery has a good outcome in small and medium macular holes, but for very large macular holes (minimum linear diameter higher than 700 μm) other techniques w...

    Authors: José Edísio da Silva Tavares Neto, Igor Neves Coelho, Rodrigo Jorge, David Leonardo Cruvinel Isaac and Marcos Pereira de Ávila

    Citation: International Journal of Retina and Vitreous 2020 6:43

    Content type: Original article

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  18. Visualization during scleral buckling is traditionally achieved via indirect ophthalmoscopy. Recent advances have utilized the surgical microscope and a 25 gauge cannula-based endoillumination system, also kno...

    Authors: Joshua S. Agranat, Vivian P. Douglas, Konstantinos A. A. Douglas and John B. Miller

    Citation: International Journal of Retina and Vitreous 2020 6:42

    Content type: Original article

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  19. To evaluate the effectiveness of face up position (FUP) following pars plana vitrectomy (PPV) and silicone oil injection in cases of rhegmatogenous retinal detachment (RRD) with multiple peripheral and inferio...

    Authors: Amr Mohammed Elsayed Abdelkader and Hossam Youssef Abouelkheir

    Citation: International Journal of Retina and Vitreous 2020 6:41

    Content type: Original article

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  20. Anti-angiogenic drugs remain the mainstay therapy for several vascular retinal pathologies. The repurposing of approved anti-angiogenic drugs for use in ophthalmology can increase therapeutic options and reduc...

    Authors: Jarbas Emílio de Moraes Neto, Felipe Pereira, Raquel Leão Neves, Nilana Meza Tenório de Barros, Cristiane Damas Gil, Arthur Gustavo Fernandes, Sung Eun Song Watanabe, Carsten Helmut Meyer, Michel Eid Farah and Eduardo Buchele Rodrigues

    Citation: International Journal of Retina and Vitreous 2020 6:40

    Content type: Original article

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  21. The short-term effects of anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (anti-VEGF) treatment on macular neovascularization (MNV) morphology is well described, but long-term studies on morphologic changes and correl...

    Authors: Emily S. Levine, Eugenia Custo Greig, Luísa S. M. Mendonça, Shilpa Gulati, Ivana N. Despotovic, A. Yasin Alibhai, Eric Moult, Nora Muakkassa, Maddalena Quaranta-El Maftouhi, Adil El Maftouhi, Usha Chakravarthy, James G. Fujimoto, Caroline R. Baumal, Andre J. Witkin, Jay S. Duker, M. Elizabeth Hartnett…

    Citation: International Journal of Retina and Vitreous 2020 6:39

    Content type: Original article

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  22. To provide information on the effects of phosphodiesterase type 5 (PDE5) inhibitors on choroidal vessels and central serous chorioretinopathy (CSC) and possible implications for development of exudative age-re...

    Authors: Natasha Ferreira Santos da Cruz, Murilo Ubukata Polizelli, Laís Maia Cezar, Emmerson B. Cardoso, Fernando Penha, Michel Eid Farah, Eduardo B. Rodrigues and Eduardo A. Novais

    Citation: International Journal of Retina and Vitreous 2020 6:38

    Content type: Review

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  23. We reviewed our experience in the management of cataract and idiopatic epiretinal membrane surgeries at the Humanitas Research Institute–Milan, Italy- over the past 3 years.

    Authors: Jose Luis Vallejo-Garcia, Mary Romano, Luca Pagano, Alessio Montericcio, Alfredo Borgia, Emanuela Morenghi and Paolo Vinciguerra

    Citation: International Journal of Retina and Vitreous 2020 6:37

    Content type: Original article

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  24. To evaluate the reliability of foveal avascular zone (FAZ) area measurements using optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA) in eyes with retinal vein occlusion (RVO).

    Authors: Bruno Mauricio Rodrigues de Oliveira, Luis Filipe Nakayama, Bruno Rebello de Godoy, Alexandre Gomes Bortoloti de Azevedo, Flavio Eduardo Hirai and Somaia Mitne

    Citation: International Journal of Retina and Vitreous 2020 6:35

    Content type: Original article

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  25. Recurrent retinal detachment (RD) is still a widespread event despite the therapeutic options available. Proliferative vitreoretinopoathy (PVR) is one of the main causes of redetachment. Little is known about ...

    Authors: Flavio A. Rezende, Natalia Vila and Emmanouil Rampakakis

    Citation: International Journal of Retina and Vitreous 2020 6:34

    Content type: Original article

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  26. The authors developed a retinoblastoma model using fresh harvested cells from an enucleated eye that were transplanted in chick embryos (chorioallantoic membrane model). The transplanted embryos were treated w...

    Authors: Silvia L. Fialho, Bárbara R. Silvestrini, Juliana Vieira, Mayara R. B. Paiva, Luciana M. Silva, Fernando Chahud, Armando Silva-Cunha, Zelia M. Correa and Rodrigo Jorge

    Citation: International Journal of Retina and Vitreous 2020 6:33

    Content type: Letter to the Editor

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  27. To evaluate the retinal toxicity after repeated intravitreal injections of a humanized anti-VEGF-A monoclonal antibody (PRO-169) versus ranibizumab in New Zealand white (NZW) rabbit eyes.

    Authors: Leopoldo Baiza-Durán, Alejandra Sánchez-Ríos, Joel González-Barón, Oscar Olvera-Montaño, Elba Correa-Gallegos, Andrea Navarro-Sánchez and Patricia Muñoz-Villegas

    Citation: International Journal of Retina and Vitreous 2020 6:32

    Content type: Original article

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  28. Ocular toxoplasmosis is one of the most common causes of intraocular inflammation and posterior uveitis in immunocompetent patients. This paper aims to investigate swept-source optical coherence tomography ang...

    Authors: João Rafael de Oliveira Dias, Camila Campelo, Eduardo Amorim Novais, Gabriel Costa de Andrade, Paula Marinho, Yusláy Fernández Zamora, Luciana Finamor Peixoto, Maurício Maia, Heloísa Nascimento and Rubens Belfort Jr.

    Citation: International Journal of Retina and Vitreous 2020 6:30

    Content type: Original article

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  29. Diabetic macular edema (DME) is the leading cause of visual loss in patients with diabetic retinopathy. There has been a paradigm shift in the treatment of DME since the advent of anti-vascular endothelial gro...

    Authors: Mohammad Ali Sadiq, Muhammad Sohail Halim, Muhammad Hassan, Neil Onghanseng, Irmak Karaca, Aniruddha Agarwal, Rubbia Afridi, Yasir J. Sepah, Diana V. Do and Quan Dong Nguyen

    Citation: International Journal of Retina and Vitreous 2020 6:29

    Content type: Review

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  30. The pathogenesis of partial-thickness macular defects and the role of Müller glial cells in the development of such defects are not well understood. We document the morphological characteristics of various typ...

    Authors: Andreas Bringmann, Jan Darius Unterlauft, Renate Wiedemann, Matus Rehak and Peter Wiedemann

    Citation: International Journal of Retina and Vitreous 2020 6:28

    Content type: Original article

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  31. To compare and assess the efficacy of three surgical methods for the treatment of acute submacular hemorrhage (ASH): pneumatic displacement with C2F6, in combination with intravitreal injection of bevacizumab ...

    Authors: Carsten Grohmann, Spyridon Dimopoulos, Karl Ulrich Bartz-Schmidt, Philipp Schindler, Toam Katz, Martin S. Spitzer and Christos Skevas

    Citation: International Journal of Retina and Vitreous 2020 6:27

    Content type: Original article

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  32. Many factors can influence the functional outcomes of macular hole surgery and some studies have tried to describe anatomical features that could predict successful treatment. The purpose of this study is to d...

    Authors: Oswaldo Ferreira Moura Brasil, Mariana Kawamuro, Denise Pardini Marinho, Bruna Trench Maia, Murilo Ubukata Polizelli, Gabriel Pipolo, Natalia Trench Maia, Rodrigo Dompieri, Natasha Ferreira Santos da Cruz and Mauricio Maia

    Citation: International Journal of Retina and Vitreous 2020 6:25

    Content type: Original article

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  33. Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is a leading cause of blindness due to diabetic macular edema (DME) or complications of proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR). Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a noninvasive i...

    Authors: Sara Vaz-Pereira, Tiago Morais-Sarmento and Raquel Esteves Marques

    Citation: International Journal of Retina and Vitreous 2020 6:26

    Content type: Review

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  34. Unused or rarely used instruments in standard surgical trays can unnecessarily increase costs. Prior studies have demonstrated the practicality and cost savings of reduced instrument tray sizes in various subs...

    Authors: Jacob D. Grodsky, Christos N. Theophanous, Sidney A. Schechet, Peter B. Veldman and Seenu M. Hariprasad

    Citation: International Journal of Retina and Vitreous 2020 6:12

    Content type: Original article

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  35. Intravitreal cytokine levels and differences in the severity of postoperative inflammation in patients with proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR) were compared between subjects treated with pan-retinal phot...

    Authors: Yukihiko Suzuki, Kobu Adachi, Natsuki Maeda, Reiko Tanabu, Takashi Kudo and Mitsuru Nakazawa

    Citation: International Journal of Retina and Vitreous 2020 6:24

    Content type: Original article

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  36. To compare the anatomical and visual outcomes in eyes with persistent diabetic macular edema (DME) after initial anti-VEGF therapy that were retreated continuously with the same anti-VEGF drug versus those tha...

    Authors: Osama A. Sorour, Keke Liu, Nihaal Mehta, Phillip Braun, Isaac Gendelman, Elsayed Nassar, Caroline R. Baumal, Andre J. Witkin, Jay S. Duker and Nadia K. Waheed

    Citation: International Journal of Retina and Vitreous 2020 6:17

    Content type: Original article

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  37. Vitamin A deficiency is rare in the United States and can be missed in patients with malabsorption syndromes without a high dose of suspicion. Ocular complications of hypovitaminosis A include xerosis and nyct...

    Authors: Meghan K. Berkenstock, Charles J. Castoro and Andrew R. Carey

    Citation: International Journal of Retina and Vitreous 2020 6:23

    Content type: Case report

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  38. To evaluate the outcomes of subthreshold nanosecond laser treatment of chronic central serous chorioretinopathy (CSC) as a function of the severity of concomitant of retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) defects.

    Authors: Hakan Kaymak, Saskia Funk, Andreas Fricke, Roxana Fulga, Karsten Klabe, Berthold Seitz, Achim Langenbucher and Hartmut Schwahn

    Citation: International Journal of Retina and Vitreous 2020 6:11

    Content type: Original article

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  39. Optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA) is a non-invasive tool for imaging and quantifying the retinal and choroidal vasculature as well as perfusion state in healthy eyes. Choroidal perfusion is subje...

    Authors: Felix Rommel, Matthias Rothe, Maximilian Kurz, Michelle Prasuhn, Salvatore Grisanti and Mahdy Ranjbar

    Citation: International Journal of Retina and Vitreous 2020 6:22

    Content type: Original article

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  40. The cases discussed highlight the atypical presentation and diagnostic dilemmas of toxoplasmosis with fulminant retinal necrosis and the potentially devastating visual outcomes of toxoplasma chorioretinitis fo...

    Authors: Jason N. Crosson, Sanjana Kuthyar, Jessica G. Shantha, Matthew R. Debiec, Philip W. Laird, Cindy S. Hwang, Hans E. Grossniklaus and Steven Yeh

    Citation: International Journal of Retina and Vitreous 2020 6:21

    Content type: Case report

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  41. We summarize the most important findings presented at the 2020 angiogenesis, exudation and degeneration symposium in five topic areas: (1) epidemiology of retinal vascular disease and macular degeneration; (2)...

    Authors: Carmen A. Puliafito and Charles C. Wykoff

    Citation: International Journal of Retina and Vitreous 2020 6:18

    Content type: Commentary

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  42. To evaluate the change in best corrected visual acuity (VA) and central macular thickness (CMT) following treatment with intravitreal aflibercept (AFL) in patients poorly responders or non responders to ranibi...

    Authors: Luciana de Sá Quirino-Makarczyk, Maria de Fátima Sainz Ugarte, Bruna Viana Vieira, Sérgio Kniggendorf and Caio Vinicius Saito Regatieri

    Citation: International Journal of Retina and Vitreous 2020 6:9

    Content type: Original article

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  43. Epiretinal membranes (ERMs) have been reported after pars plana vitrectomy (PPV) for rhegmatogenous retinal detachment (RRD). Peeling of the internal limiting membrane (ILM) can prevent post-PPV ERM formation ...

    Authors: Mohamed Esmail Abdullah, Hossam Eldeen Mohammad Moharram, Ahmed Shawkat Abdelhalim, Khaled Mohamed Mourad and Mohamed Farouk Abdelkader

    Citation: International Journal of Retina and Vitreous 2020 6:8

    Content type: Original article

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