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  1. Vitamin A deficiency is rare in the United States and can be missed in patients with malabsorption syndromes without a high dose of suspicion. Ocular complications of hypovitaminosis A include xerosis and nyct...

    Authors: Meghan K. Berkenstock, Charles J. Castoro and Andrew R. Carey

    Citation: International Journal of Retina and Vitreous 2020 6:23

    Content type: Case report

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  2. To evaluate the outcomes of subthreshold nanosecond laser treatment of chronic central serous chorioretinopathy (CSC) as a function of the severity of concomitant of retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) defects.

    Authors: Hakan Kaymak, Saskia Funk, Andreas Fricke, Roxana Fulga, Karsten Klabe, Berthold Seitz, Achim Langenbucher and Hartmut Schwahn

    Citation: International Journal of Retina and Vitreous 2020 6:11

    Content type: Original article

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  3. Optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA) is a non-invasive tool for imaging and quantifying the retinal and choroidal vasculature as well as perfusion state in healthy eyes. Choroidal perfusion is subje...

    Authors: Felix Rommel, Matthias Rothe, Maximilian Kurz, Michelle Prasuhn, Salvatore Grisanti and Mahdy Ranjbar

    Citation: International Journal of Retina and Vitreous 2020 6:22

    Content type: Original article

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  4. The cases discussed highlight the atypical presentation and diagnostic dilemmas of toxoplasmosis with fulminant retinal necrosis and the potentially devastating visual outcomes of toxoplasma chorioretinitis fo...

    Authors: Jason N. Crosson, Sanjana Kuthyar, Jessica G. Shantha, Matthew R. Debiec, Philip W. Laird, Cindy S. Hwang, Hans E. Grossniklaus and Steven Yeh

    Citation: International Journal of Retina and Vitreous 2020 6:21

    Content type: Case report

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  5. We summarize the most important findings presented at the 2020 angiogenesis, exudation and degeneration symposium in five topic areas: (1) epidemiology of retinal vascular disease and macular degeneration; (2)...

    Authors: Carmen A. Puliafito and Charles C. Wykoff

    Citation: International Journal of Retina and Vitreous 2020 6:18

    Content type: Commentary

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  6. To evaluate the change in best corrected visual acuity (VA) and central macular thickness (CMT) following treatment with intravitreal aflibercept (AFL) in patients poorly responders or non responders to ranibi...

    Authors: Luciana de Sá Quirino-Makarczyk, Maria de Fátima Sainz Ugarte, Bruna Viana Vieira, Sérgio Kniggendorf and Caio Vinicius Saito Regatieri

    Citation: International Journal of Retina and Vitreous 2020 6:9

    Content type: Original article

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  7. Epiretinal membranes (ERMs) have been reported after pars plana vitrectomy (PPV) for rhegmatogenous retinal detachment (RRD). Peeling of the internal limiting membrane (ILM) can prevent post-PPV ERM formation ...

    Authors: Mohamed Esmail Abdullah, Hossam Eldeen Mohammad Moharram, Ahmed Shawkat Abdelhalim, Khaled Mohamed Mourad and Mohamed Farouk Abdelkader

    Citation: International Journal of Retina and Vitreous 2020 6:8

    Content type: Original article

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  8. Microperimetry (MP) allows for measurement of retinal sensitivity at precise locations and is now commonly employed as a clinical trial endpoint. Test–retest reliability is important when evaluating treatment ...

    Authors: A. Yasin Alibhai, Nihaal Mehta, Sheila Hickson-Curran, Carlos Moreira-Neto, Emily S. Levine, Elias Reichel, Jay S. Duker and Nadia K. Waheed

    Citation: International Journal of Retina and Vitreous 2020 6:16

    Content type: Original article

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  9. Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a chronic, autoimmune and multisystemic disease. Recent studies with functional and structural magnetic resonance imaging and cognitive tests report an unexpectedly high f...

    Authors: Arnaldo Dias-Santos, Joana Tavares Ferreira, Sofia Pinheiro, João Paulo Cunha, Marta Alves, Ana L. Papoila, Maria Francisca Moraes-Fontes and Rui Proença

    Citation: International Journal of Retina and Vitreous 2020 6:15

    Content type: Original article

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  10. Multiple surgical techniques exist for the repair of rhegmatogenous retinal detachments (RRD). Suprachoroidal buckling (SCB), consisting of injecting viscoelastic material in the suprachoroidal space to allow ...

    Authors: Fares Antaki, Ali Dirani, Marina Ravagnani Ciongoli, David H. W. Steel and Flavio Rezende

    Citation: International Journal of Retina and Vitreous 2020 6:10

    Content type: Original article

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  11. The authors report two cases of the scleral buckles intrusion and erosion that presented many years after primary surgery with vitreous haemorrhage in one of them. Although the erosion/intrusion of a silicone ...

    Authors: Mohammad Zarei, Alireza Mahmoudi, Abdollah Hadi and Hamid Riazi-Esfahani

    Citation: International Journal of Retina and Vitreous 2020 6:7

    Content type: Case report

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  12. The purpose of this study was to investigate the association between diabetic retinopathy (DR) severity and macular choriocapillaris (CC) flow deficit percentage (FD %) in different macular regions using swept...

    Authors: Isaac Gendelman, A. Yasin Alibhai, Eric M. Moult, Emily S. Levine, Phillip X. Braun, Nihaal Mehta, Yi Zhao, Akihiro Ishibazawa, Osama A. Sorour, Caroline R. Baumal, Andre J. Witkin, Elias Reichel, James G. Fujimoto, Jay S. Duker and Nadia K. Waheed

    Citation: International Journal of Retina and Vitreous 2020 6:6

    Content type: Original article

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  13. Large, chronic full thickness macular holes which failed previous treatments are difficult to manage and even left untreated due to poor prognosis. A retrospective review of consecutive cases with chronic (at ...

    Authors: Nicholas S. K. Fung, Anthony K. H. Mak, Rachel Yiu, Ian Y. H. Wong and Wai Ching Lam

    Citation: International Journal of Retina and Vitreous 2020 6:3

    Content type: Original article

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  14. To study the automated segmentation of retinal layers using spectral domain optical coherence tomography (OCT) and the impact of manual correction over segmentation mistakes.

    Authors: Alexandre Gomes Bortoloti de Azevedo, Guilherme Eiichi da Silva Takitani, Bruno Rebello Godoy, Bruna Ferraço Marianelli, Vinicius Saraiva, Ivan Maynart Tavares and Luiz Roisman

    Citation: International Journal of Retina and Vitreous 2020 6:4

    Content type: Original article

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  15. To evaluate the safety and efficacy of intravitreal ziv-aflibercept (IVZ) in the management of vitreous hemorrhage (VH) in eyes with previously lasered proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR).

    Authors: Ahmad M. Mansour, Mohammed Ashraf, Khalil M. El Jawhari, Michel Farah, Ahmed Souka, Chintan Sarvaiya, Sumit Randhir Singh, Alay Banker and Jay Chhablani

    Citation: International Journal of Retina and Vitreous 2020 6:2

    Content type: Review

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  16. Eye surgery, specifically retinal micro-surgery involves sensory and motor skill that approaches human boundaries and physiological limits for steadiness, accuracy, and the ability to detect the small forces i...

    Authors: Müller G. Urias, Niravkumar Patel, Changyan He, Ali Ebrahimi, Ji Woong Kim, Iulian Iordachita and Peter L. Gehlbach

    Citation: International Journal of Retina and Vitreous 2019 5:52

    Content type: Commentary

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  17. The ETDRS stereoscopic seven-field (7F) has been a standard imaging and grading protocol for assessment of diabetic retinopathy (DR) severity score in many clinical trials. To the best of our knowledge, the co...

    Authors: Nam V. Nguyen, Erin M. Vigil, Muhammad Hassan, Muhammad S. Halim, Sean C. Baluyot, Hugo A. Guzman, Rubbia Afridi, Diana V. Do and Yasir J. Sepah

    Citation: International Journal of Retina and Vitreous 2019 5:51

    Content type: Original article

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  18. The objective of this study is to report the incidence of retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) outliers that fall outside the screening guidelines of the American Academy of Ophthalmology (AAO) in our country.

    Authors: Juan Carlos Romo-Aguas, Ana González-H.León, Miroslava Paolah Meraz-Gutiérrez and María A. Martínez-Castellanos

    Citation: International Journal of Retina and Vitreous 2019 5(Suppl 1):53

    Content type: Review

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    This article is part of a Supplement: Volume 5 Supplement 1

  19. Antimicrobials may be injected into silicone oil-filled eyes with endophthalmitis, but the interaction with oil is unclear. The purpose of the experiment is to determine whether vancomycin, amikacin, and ampho...

    Authors: Ella H. Leung and J. Timothy Stout

    Citation: International Journal of Retina and Vitreous 2019 5:50

    Content type: Original article

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  20. Wide-field imaging plays an increasingly important role in ocular oncology clinics. The purpose of this review is to describe the commonly used wide-field imaging devices and review conditions seen in ocular o...

    Authors: Natalia F. Callaway and Prithvi Mruthyunjaya

    Citation: International Journal of Retina and Vitreous 2019 5(Suppl 1):49

    Content type: Review

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    This article is part of a Supplement: Volume 5 Supplement 1

  21. Retinoschisis and retinal detachment are distinguished based on features in clinical examination. Even to skilled examiners, some cases may be diagnostic challenges. Infrared and wide-angle infrared reflectanc...

    Authors: Himanshu K. Banda, Anjali Shah and Gaurav K. Shah

    Citation: International Journal of Retina and Vitreous 2019 5(Suppl 1):42

    Content type: Review

    Published on:

    This article is part of a Supplement: Volume 5 Supplement 1

  22. Wide-field imaging is a newer retinal imaging technology, capturing up to 200 degrees of the retina in a single photograph. Individuals with sickle cell retinopathy commonly exhibit peripheral retinal ischemia...

    Authors: Marguerite O. Linz and Adrienne W. Scott

    Citation: International Journal of Retina and Vitreous 2019 5(Suppl 1):27

    Content type: Review

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    This article is part of a Supplement: Volume 5 Supplement 1

  23. To describe the peripheral retinal findings associated with systemic medication toxicity and to outline the importance of ultra-widefield imaging in the detection, analysis and monitoring of these abnormalities.

    Authors: Giulia Corradetti, Sara Violanti, Adrian Au and David Sarraf

    Citation: International Journal of Retina and Vitreous 2019 5(Suppl 1):26

    Content type: Review

    Published on:

    This article is part of a Supplement: Volume 5 Supplement 1

  24. Inherited retinal degeneration (IRD) refers to a heterogenous group of progressive diseases that cause death of photoreceptor cells and subsequent vision loss. These diseases often affect the peripheral retina...

    Authors: Akio Oishi, Manabu Miyata, Shogo Numa, Yuki Otsuka, Maho Oishi and Akitaka Tsujikawa

    Citation: International Journal of Retina and Vitreous 2019 5(Suppl 1):23

    Content type: Review

    Published on:

    This article is part of a Supplement: Volume 5 Supplement 1

  25. Pediatric retinal disorders, although uncommon, can be challenging to assess in the clinic setting and often requires an exam under anesthesia. The purpose of our study was to evaluate the use of ultra-wide fi...

    Authors: Nikisha Kothari, Stacy Pineles, David Sarraf, Federico Velez, Gad Heilweil, Gary Holland, Colin A. McCannel, Tania Onclinx, Tara A. McCannel, SriniVas R. Sadda, Steven D. Schwartz and Irena Tsui

    Citation: International Journal of Retina and Vitreous 2019 5(Suppl 1):21

    Content type: Case report

    Published on:

    This article is part of a Supplement: Volume 5 Supplement 1

  26. Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is one of the leading causes of vision loss worldwide. For decades, 7-field 30-degree fundus imaging has been the gold standard for DR classification. The aim of this review article i...

    Authors: T. Y. Alvin Liu and J. Fernando Arevalo

    Citation: International Journal of Retina and Vitreous 2019 5(Suppl 1):20

    Content type: Review

    Published on:

    This article is part of a Supplement: Volume 5 Supplement 1

  27. Retinal vein occlusion (RVO) is the second most common retinal vascular disease after diabetic retinopathy. It can result in significant visual loss from complications like macula edema, retinal and iris neova...

    Authors: Colin S. Tan, Kelvin Z. Li and SriniVas R. Sadda

    Citation: International Journal of Retina and Vitreous 2019 5(Suppl 1):18

    Content type: Review

    Published on:

    This article is part of a Supplement: Volume 5 Supplement 1

  28. Sub-macular hemorrhage (SMH) is a hematic collection between the neurosensory retina and the retinal pigment epithelium; one of its causes is ocular blunt trauma, that usually affects young patients. Persistin...

    Authors: Giamberto Casini, Pasquale Loiudice, Martina Menchini, Francesco Sartini, Stefano De Cillà, Michele Figus and Marco Nardi

    Citation: International Journal of Retina and Vitreous 2019 5:48

    Content type: Review

    Published on:

  29. Optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA) enables detailed, non-invasive assessment of ocular vasculature. This study uses OCTA imaging to evaluate choriocapillaris and retinal capillary perfusion densit...

    Authors: Felipe F. Conti, Weilin Song, Eduardo B. Rodrigues and Rishi P. Singh

    Citation: International Journal of Retina and Vitreous 2019 5:41

    Content type: Original article

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  30. To evaluate the epidemiology of endophthalmitis cases related to ocular trauma, including visual acuity during and 1 year after trauma, source of trauma and method of treatment.

    Authors: Luis Filipe Nakayama, Vinicius Campos Bergamo and Nilva Simeren Bueno de Moraes

    Citation: International Journal of Retina and Vitreous 2019 5:43

    Content type: Original article

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  31. Reduced retinal vascular oxygen (O2) content causes tissue hypoxia and may lead to development of vision-threatening pathologies. Since increased vessel tortuosity is an early sign for some hypoxia-implicated ret...

    Authors: Maziyar M. Khansari, Sarah L. Garvey, Shayan Farzad, Yonggang Shi and Mahnaz Shahidi

    Citation: International Journal of Retina and Vitreous 2019 5:47

    Content type: Original article

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  32. The present study was undertaken to assess the resistive index (RI) of central retinal artery (CRA) as a bioimaging biomarker for the severity of diabetic retinopathy (DR), for the first time.

    Authors: Manila Khatri, Sandeep Saxena, Manoj Kumar, Apjit Kaur Chabbra, Shashi K. Bhasker, Ece Isin Akduman, Hang Pham and Levent Akduman

    Citation: International Journal of Retina and Vitreous 2019 5:38

    Content type: Original article

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  33. Vitamin D is a multi-functional fat-soluble metabolite essential for a vast number of physiological processes. Non-classical functions are gaining attention because of the close association of vitamin D defici...

    Authors: Gauhar Nadri, Sandeep Saxena, Abbas Ali Mahdi, Apjit Kaur, Md. Kaleem Ahmad, Pragati Garg and Carsten H. Meyer

    Citation: International Journal of Retina and Vitreous 2019 5:31

    Content type: Original article

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  34. This study aimed to determine the relationship between image quality and measurement repeatability of optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA) parameters in patients with non-proliferative diabetic reti...

    Authors: Cecília Czakó, Lilla István, Mónika Ecsedy, Zsuzsa Récsán, Gábor Sándor, Fruzsina Benyó, Hajnalka Horváth, András Papp, Miklós Resch, Ágnes Borbándy, Zoltán Zsolt Nagy and Illés Kovács

    Citation: International Journal of Retina and Vitreous 2019 5:46

    Content type: Original article

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  35. The World Health Organization (WHO) estimates that the number of individuals who lose their vision due to retinal degeneration is expected to reach 6 million annually in 2020. The retinal degenerative diseases...

    Authors: Fernando H. Lojudice, Rodrigo A. Brant Fernandes, Francesco Innocenti, Carlos E. Franciozi, Priscila Cristovam, Maurício Maia, Mari C. Sogayar and Rubens Belfort Jr

    Citation: International Journal of Retina and Vitreous 2019 5:45

    Content type: Original article

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  36. Inverted Internal Limiting Membrane (ILM)-flap technique would seem to lead to higher closure rate and better visual acuity than traditional procedure with ILM peeling for the treatment of large macular hole (...

    Authors: Giancarlo Sborgia, Alfredo Niro, Alessandra Sborgia, Valeria Albano, Tiziana Tritto, Luigi Sborgia, Valentina Pastore, Rossella Donghia, Ermete Giancipoli, Nicola Recchimurzo, Francesco Boscia and Giovanni Alessio

    Citation: International Journal of Retina and Vitreous 2019 5:44

    Content type: Original article

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  37. To report a case of a chronic steroid user male patient who developed local abscesses caused by M. fortuitum and concomitant asymptomatic choroidal granuloma.

    Authors: João Pinto da Silva Neto, Kyra Nhayanna Coutinho Machado and Luiz Roisman

    Citation: International Journal of Retina and Vitreous 2019 5:37

    Content type: Case report

    Published on:

  38. With increasing incidence of yellow fever, mass campaign vaccinations are underway and little ophthalmological alterations have been reported in literature, specially regarding non-combined vaccines.

    Authors: Paula M. Marinho, Heloisa Nascimento, Andre Romano, Cristina Muccioli and Rubens Belfort Jr.

    Citation: International Journal of Retina and Vitreous 2019 5:30

    Content type: Case report

    Published on:

  39. Elevated serum vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) levels are associated with diabetic retinopathy (DR). Serum VEGF levels correlate with vitreous levels. Neuroretinal changes occur even before the appea...

    Authors: Sukriti Ahuja, Sandeep Saxena, Levent Akduman, Carsten H. Meyer, Peter Kruzliak and Vinay K. Khanna

    Citation: International Journal of Retina and Vitreous 2019 5:29

    Content type: Original article

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  40. To evaluate the in vivo and in vitro toxicity of a new formulation of liposome-encapsulated sirolimus (LES).

    Authors: Murilo Batista Abud, Ricardo Noguera Louzada, David Leonardo Cruvinel Isaac, Leonardo Gomes Souza, Ricardo Gomes dos Reis, Eliana Martins Lima and Marcos Pereira de Ávila

    Citation: International Journal of Retina and Vitreous 2019 5:35

    Content type: Original article

    Published on:

  41. To assess the number of eyes with silicone oil in the vitreous after intravitreal injection.

    Authors: Gustavo Barreto Melo, Celso de Souza Dias Junior, Fábio Barreto Morais, Alexandre Lima Cardoso, Ana Galrão Almeida Figueiredo, Acácio Alves Souza Lima Filho, Eduardo Büchele Rodrigues, Geoffrey Guy Emerson and Maurício Maia

    Citation: International Journal of Retina and Vitreous 2019 5:34

    Content type: Original article

    Published on:

  42. Increased mineralocorticoid activity is one of the plausible causes of chronic central serous chorioretinopathy (CSCR) and mineralocorticoid inhibitors such as eplerenone have been investigated as its potentia...

    Authors: Hamid-Reza Moein, Lauren W. Bierman, Eduardo A. Novais, Carlos Moreira-Neto, Caroline R. Baumal, Adam Rogers, Jay S. Duker and André J. Witkin

    Citation: International Journal of Retina and Vitreous 2019 5:39

    Content type: Original article

    Published on:


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