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Table 1 Summarized clinical and multimodal imaging aspects of patients

From: Multimodal imaging for paracentral acute maculopathy; the diagnostic role of en face OCT

  Demographic PAMM Association Complaint BCVA OCT OCTA Projection artifact Enface Final BCVA
Patient 1 42-year-old man Cilioretinal artery occlusion (CILRAO) Paracentral scotoma 20/20 The borders of the lesion revealed a hyper-reflective band involving INL with extension to inner plexiform layer Superficial and deep capillary drop-out  +  Hyper-reflectivity in the distribution of cilioretinal artery 20/20
Patient 2 33-year-old woman Cilioretinal artery occlusion (CILRAO) Paracentral scotoma 20/20 Hyper-reflective bands at the INL extended from inner plexiform to outer plexiform layers Deep capillary drop-out  +  The confluent globular hyperreflective area in the territory of the cilioretinal artery 20/20
Patient 3 56-year-old man Branch retinal artery occlusion (BRAO) Sudden visual loss CF 2 m The hyper-reflective band at the middle layers sparing more superficial layers of the retina except for the CWS region that showed involvement of both superficial and middle retinal layers Superficial and deep capillary drop-out  +  A fern-like whitening as a hyper-reflective area more prominent around the venules around the site of the involved retinal artery 20/400
Patient 4 63-year-old woman Isolated PAMM Sudden visual loss and altitudinal field defect CF 2 m Hyper-reflective band of the middle retinal layers Deep capillary drop-out  +  Hyper-reflective area, most prominently around venules with relative sparing of arterioles, making a fern-like appearance CF 2 m
Patient 5 67-year-old woman Non-ischemic CRVO and CILRAO Sudden visual loss CF 1 m The area of cilioretinal hypoperfusion appeared to be hyper-reflective in both superficial and middle retinal layers while the lower border of the lesion appeared hyper-reflective solely in the middle layer Superficial and deep capillary drop-out  +  Hyper-reflectivity in the distribution of cilioretinal artery, inferotemporal to the fovea, showed perivenular hyper-reflectivity with a fern-like appearance 20/200
  1. PAMM: Paracentral acute middle maculopathy, CRVO: central retinal vein occlusion, BRAO: Branch retinal artery occlusion, CILRAO: Cilioretinal artery occlusion, BCVA: best corrected visual acuity, OCT: Optical coherence tomography, CF: count finger, INL: Inner nuclear layer, CWS: cotton wool spot