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  1. Content type: Review

    In diabetic retinopathy (DR), macular involvement can present as either macular edema or ischemia. Fluorescein angiography remains the gold standard in the evaluation of retinal vascular perfusion and diagnosi...

    Authors: Jose Mauricio Botto de Barros Garcia, David Leonardo Cruvinel Isaac and Marcos Avila

    Citation: International Journal of Retina and Vitreous 2017 3:14

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  2. Content type: Original article

    The eye is one of the most sensitive organs to sulfur mustard (SM) [C4H8Cl2S], and preliminary symptoms of exposure usually become evident in the eyes. In this study we aim to evaluate the possible long-term reti...

    Authors: Nasser Shoeibi, Mir Naghi Mousavi, Mahdi Balali-Mood, Mohammad Moshiri, Emadodin Darchini-Maragheh, Seyed Reza Mousavi and Mojtaba Abrishami

    Citation: International Journal of Retina and Vitreous 2017 3:7

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  3. Content type: Original article

    To compare a near decade of follow-up, newer control cohort data, use of both the societal and third party insurer cost perspectives, and integration of unilateral/bilateral therapy on the comparative effecti...

    Authors: Gary C. Brown, Melissa M. Brown, Heidi B. Lieske, Adam Turpcu and Yamina Rajput

    Citation: International Journal of Retina and Vitreous 2017 3:5

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  4. Content type: Review

    Arthropod-borne viruses, or arboviruses, are viruses that are transmitted through the bites of mosquitoes and ticks. There are numerous arboviruses throughout the world capable of causing human disease spannin...

    Authors: Gabriel Costa de Andrade, Camila V. Ventura, Paulo Augusto de Arruda Mello Filho, Maurício Maia, Silvana Vianello and Eduardo Büchele Rodrigues

    Citation: International Journal of Retina and Vitreous 2017 3:4

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  5. Content type: Case report

    Classic retinitis pigmentosa (RP) and other syndromic variants have previously been associated to Fuchs’ heterochromic iridocyclitis (FHI). Common immunogenic and inflammatory pathways have been proposed to ex...

    Authors: Gian Franco Díez-Cattini, David Arturo Ancona-Lezama, Carlos Valdés-Lara and Virgilio Morales-Cantón

    Citation: International Journal of Retina and Vitreous 2017 3:3

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  6. Content type: Original article

    To describe a wide array of peripheral vascular changes using fluorescein angiography in preterm neonates, without high risk characteristics for developing retinopathy of prematurity, that were exposed to high...

    Authors: Maria Ana Martinez-Castellanos, Raul Velez-Montoya, Kenneth Price, Andree Henaine-Berra, Gerardo García-Aguirre, Virgilio Morales-Canton and Linda Alejandra Cernichiaro-Espinosa

    Citation: International Journal of Retina and Vitreous 2017 3:2

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  7. Content type: Review

    Biomarker”, a merged word of “biological marker”, refers to a broad subcategory of medical signs that objectively indicate the state of health, and well-being of an individual. Biomarkers hold great promise fo...

    Authors: Prateep Phadikar, Sandeep Saxena, Surabhi Ruia, Timothy Y. Y. Lai, Carsten H. Meyer and Dean Eliott

    Citation: International Journal of Retina and Vitreous 2017 3:1

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  8. Content type: Review

    There have been many advances in vitreoretinal surgery since Machemer introduced the concept of pars plana vitrectomy, in 1971. Of particular interest are the changes in the vitrectomy cutters, their fluidics ...

    Authors: Paulo Ricardo Chaves de Oliveira, Alan Richard Berger and David Robert Chow

    Citation: International Journal of Retina and Vitreous 2016 2:28

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  9. Content type: Review

    Neovascular glaucoma (NVG) is a secondary glaucoma generally associated with poor visual prognosis. The development of new vessels over the iris and the iridocorneal angle can obstruct aqueous humor outflow an...

    Authors: Gustavo B. Rodrigues, Ricardo Y. Abe, Camila Zangalli, Savio L. Sodre, Flavia A. Donini, Danilo C. Costa, Andre Leite, Joao P. Felix, Marcelo Torigoe, Alberto Diniz-Filho and Homero Gusmão de Almeida

    Citation: International Journal of Retina and Vitreous 2016 2:26

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  10. Content type: Review

    Technologies for multimodal digital imaging of vitreoretinal diseases have improved the accuracy of diagnosis and the depth of the knowledge of the mechanisms of disease and their response to treatments. Optic...

    Authors: Fabio Lavinsky and Daniel Lavinsky

    Citation: International Journal of Retina and Vitreous 2016 2:25

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  11. Content type: Review

    Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is the most common cause of dementia and its incidence is increasing worldwide along with population aging. Previous clinical and histologic studies suggest that the neurodegenerative ...

    Authors: Leonardo Provetti Cunha, Ana Laura Maciel Almeida, Luciana Virgínia Ferreira Costa-Cunha, Carolina Ferreira Costa and Mário L. R. Monteiro

    Citation: International Journal of Retina and Vitreous 2016 2:24

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  12. Content type: Original article

    To investigate the choroidal thickness in older patients with central serous chorioretinopathy (CSCR) compared to age-matched normal subjects.

    Authors: Caio V. Regatieri, Eduardo A. Novais, Lauren Branchini, Mehreen Adhi, Emily D. Cole, Ricardo Louzada, Mark Lane, Elias Reichel and Jay S. Duker

    Citation: International Journal of Retina and Vitreous 2016 2:22

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  13. Content type: Original article

    Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is the major cause of blindness among working age adults. The aim of the study was to investigate risk factors for development of DR.

    Authors: Vinícius Carriero Lima, Gabriela Coutinho Cavalieri, Maurício Carriero Lima, Nazaré Otília Nazario and Gina Carriero Lima

    Citation: International Journal of Retina and Vitreous 2016 2:21

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  14. Content type: Original article

    To evaluate the effect of aflibercept (as second line therapy) on the clinical outcome in patients with chronic macular edema secondary to branch retinal vein occlusion (BRVO) insufficiently responding to pri...

    Authors: Magdalena A. Wirth, Matthias D. Becker, Nicole Graf and Stephan Michels

    Citation: International Journal of Retina and Vitreous 2016 2:20

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  15. Content type: Review

    Lutein and zeaxanthin, two carotenoid pigments of the xanthophyll subclass, are present in high concentrations in the retina, especially in the macula. They work as a filter protecting the macula from blue lig...

    Authors: Verônica Castro Lima, Richard B. Rosen and Michel Farah

    Citation: International Journal of Retina and Vitreous 2016 2:19

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  16. Content type: Case report

    Presence of subretinal abscess in endogenous endophthalmitis indicates a more severe form of infection. Available reports indicate variable response to standard treatment with systemic, intravitreal pharmacoth...

    Authors: Pradeep Venkatesh, Shreys Temkar, Koushik Tripathy and Rohan Chawla

    Citation: International Journal of Retina and Vitreous 2016 2:17

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  17. Content type: Original article

    To report expanded SD-OCT findings of HCQ retinopathy that may assist the clinician in earlier diagnosis. To characterize structural changes of HCQ retinopathy with SD-OCT after drug cessation.

    Authors: David R. Lally, Jeffrey S. Heier, Caroline Baumal, Andre J. Witkin, Steven Maler, Chirag P. Shah, Elias Reichel, Nadia K. Waheed, Igor Bussel, Adam Rogers and Jay S. Duker

    Citation: International Journal of Retina and Vitreous 2016 2:18

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  18. Content type: Original article

    Diabetic macular edema (DME) shows a gradual and sustained functional and morphologic response to anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) drugs, but the optimal schedule for initiation of anti-VEGF ther...

    Authors: Focke Ziemssen, Patricio G. Schlottman, Jennifer I. Lim, Hansjürgen Agostini, Gabriele E. Lang and Francesco Bandello

    Citation: International Journal of Retina and Vitreous 2016 2:16

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  19. Content type: Original article

    Pseudoxanthoma elasticum (PXE) typically involves elastic fibers in blood vessels and Bruch membrane. Our purpose was to analyze retinal and choroidal macular thickness in patients with angioid streaks due PXE...

    Authors: Rosa Dolz-Marco, María Andreu-Fenoll, Pablo Hernández-Martínez, M. Dolores Pinazo-Durán and Roberto Gallego-Pinazo

    Citation: International Journal of Retina and Vitreous 2016 2:15

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  20. Content type: Original article

    Macular pigment (MP) has been related to the occurrence of age related macular degeneration (AMD). We investigated prospectively in eyes of elderly individuals how magnitude and spatial distribution of MP had ...

    Authors: Verena Meyer zu Westrup, Martha Dietzel, Meike Zeimer, Daniel Pauleikhoff and Hans-Werner Hense

    Citation: International Journal of Retina and Vitreous 2016 2:14

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  21. Content type: Case report

    Bilateral diffuse uveal melanocytic proliferation (BDUMP) is a rare, paraneoplastic syndrome characterized by bilateral painless visual loss and proliferation of choroidal melanocytes in association with an un...

    Authors: Jonathan Naysan, Claudine E. Pang, Robert W. Klein and K. Bailey Freund

    Citation: International Journal of Retina and Vitreous 2016 2:13

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  22. Content type: Review

    Retinal microvascular imaging is an especially promising application of high resolution imaging since there are increasing options for therapeutic intervention and need for better structural and functional bio...

    Authors: Toco Y. P. Chui, Shelley Mo, Brian Krawitz, Nikhil R. Menon, Nadim Choudhury, Alexander Gan, Moataz Razeen, Nishit Shah, Alexander Pinhas and Richard B. Rosen

    Citation: International Journal of Retina and Vitreous 2016 2:11

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  23. Content type: Review

    Fundus autofluorescence (FAF) is a non-invasive retinal imaging modality used in clinical practice to provide a density map of lipofuscin, the predominant ocular fluorophore, in the retinal pigment epithelium....

    Authors: Madeline Yung, Michael A. Klufas and David Sarraf

    Citation: International Journal of Retina and Vitreous 2016 2:12

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  24. Content type: Original article

    To compare early visual and anatomical outcomes after either sulfur hexafluoride (SF6) or perfluoropropane (C3F8) tamponade for macular hole repair.

    Authors: Giamberto Casini, Pasquale Loiudice, Stefano De Cillà, Paolo Radice and Marco Nardi

    Citation: International Journal of Retina and Vitreous 2016 2:10

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  25. Content type: Original article

    To evaluate the role of thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS) and nitric oxide (NO) as biochemical biomarkers and central subfield (CST) and cube average thickness (CAT) as biomarkers for medical imag...

    Authors: Surabhi Ruia, Sandeep Saxena, S. Prasad, Shashi R. Sharma, Levent Akduman and Vinay K. Khanna

    Citation: International Journal of Retina and Vitreous 2016 2:8

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  26. Content type: Original article

    Outer retinal tubulations (ORTs) are branching tubular structures located in the outer nuclear layer of the retina. The goal of this study is to determine the prevalence of ORTs observed in eyes with choroidal...

    Authors: Richard Geraldo Giachetti Filho, Leandro Cabral Zacharias, Thaís Vera Monteiro, Rony Carlos Preti and Sérgio Gianoti Pimentel

    Citation: International Journal of Retina and Vitreous 2016 2:6

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  27. Content type: Original article

    Birdshot chorioretinopathy is a chronic bilateral inflammatory disease of unknown etiology characterized by bilateral retinal vasculitis, mild to moderate vitritis, retinal vascular leakage, cystoid macular ed...

    Authors: Marisa Gobuty, Mehreen Adhi, Sarah P. Read and Jay S. Duker

    Citation: International Journal of Retina and Vitreous 2016 2:9

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  28. Content type: Reviewer acknowledgement

    The Editors of International Journal of Retina and Vitreous would like to thank all of our reviewers, both external and Editorial Board Members, who have contributed to the journal in Volume 1 (2015) and whose va...

    Authors: Jay Duker and Eduardo Rodrigues

    Citation: International Journal of Retina and Vitreous 2016 2:7

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  29. Content type: Original article

    To compare choroidal thickness in patients with adult-onset foveomacular vitelliform dystrophy (AOFVD) with healthy subjects and to correlate choroidal thickness with age, gender and spherical equivalent.

    Authors: Renato Menezes Palácios, Thaís Sousa Mendes, Ronaldo Yuiti Sano, Davi Chen Wu, Teruo Aihara and Roberta Pereira de Almeida Manzano

    Citation: International Journal of Retina and Vitreous 2016 2:5

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  30. Content type: Review

    Uveal melanoma is the most common primary intraocular tumor in adults, and it has a strong potential to metastasize. Traditionally, clinicopathological features of these tumors were used to provide a limited p...

    Authors: Victoria J. Schopper and Zelia M. Correa

    Citation: International Journal of Retina and Vitreous 2016 2:4

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  31. Content type: Review

    In the last few years, monoclonal antibodies have revolutionized the treatment of retinal neovascular diseases. More recently, a different class of drugs, fusion proteins, has provided an alternative treatment...

    Authors: João Rafael de Oliveira Dias, Gabriel Costa de Andrade, Eduardo Amorim Novais, Michel Eid Farah and Eduardo Büchele Rodrigues

    Citation: International Journal of Retina and Vitreous 2016 2:3

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  32. Content type: Original article

    Neovascular age-related macular degeneration often requires chronic therapy with anti-VEGF agents, and patients with recurrent disease are challenging to manage.

    Authors: Geraldine R. Slean, Kornwipa Hemarat, Rahul N. Khurana and Jay M. Stewart

    Citation: International Journal of Retina and Vitreous 2016 2:2

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  33. Content type: Case Report

    Dengue virus infection is on the rise and there is increasing number of ocular complications that are being reported. Most common ocular complications are macular edema, macular hemorrhages, and foveolitis. Th...

    Authors: Punithamalar Velaitham and Nandini Vijayasingham

    Citation: International Journal of Retina and Vitreous 2016 2:1

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  34. Content type: Original article

    To report the outcomes of vitreous hemorrhage (VH) associated with hemorrhagic polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy (PCV).

    Authors: Raja Narayanan, Kopal Mithal, Subhadra Jalali, Jay Kumar Chhablani, Annie Mathai and Md Hasnat Ali

    Citation: International Journal of Retina and Vitreous 2015 1:25

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  35. Content type: Case report

    We present a case of a combined hamartoma of the retina and retinal pigment epithelium associated with a subfoveal acquired vitelliform lesion induced by vitreomacular traction. The purpose of this report is t...

    Authors: Bora Chae, Elona Dhrami-Gavazi, Kunal K. Dansingani, K. Bailey Freund, Winston Lee and Lawrence A. Yannuzzi

    Citation: International Journal of Retina and Vitreous 2015 1:23

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  36. Content type: Review

    Early diagnosis and treatment of choroidal neovascularization (CNV), a main cause of severe vision loss in age related macular degeneration (AMD), is crucial in order to preserve vision and the quality of life...

    Authors: Roy Schwartz and Anat Loewenstein

    Citation: International Journal of Retina and Vitreous 2015 1:20

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  37. Content type: Original article

    Diabetic retinopathy is one of most common and threatening ocular diseases. Many of these patients need to be submitted to panretinal photocoagulation (PRP), experiencing a significant level of pain. The purpo...

    Authors: Rafael Barbosa de Araújo, Leandro Cabral Zacharias, Breno Marques de Azevedo, Beatrice Schmidt Giusti, Rony Carlos Pretti, Walter Y. Takahashi and Mário Luiz Ribeiro Monteiro

    Citation: International Journal of Retina and Vitreous 2015 1:21

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  38. Content type: Original article

    Reports of triple combination therapy for neovascular age-related macular degeneration (AMD) suggest a benefit, as do reports for zeaxanthin. An interventional comparative study was thus undertaken to evaluate...

    Authors: R. Joseph Olk, Enrique Peralta, Dennis L. Gierhart, Gary C. Brown and Melissa M. Brown

    Citation: International Journal of Retina and Vitreous 2015 1:22

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  39. Content type: Case report

    We report a 24-year-old man with Vogt-Koyanagi-Harada (VKH) syndrome who developed a macular hole (MH) during the acute inflammatory stage. Spontaneous resolution was unlikely because of the MH dimensions and...

    Authors: Rodrigo M. Navarro, Gisele C. Guizilini, Leonardo M. Machado and Mauricio Maia

    Citation: International Journal of Retina and Vitreous 2015 1:18

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  40. Content type: Original article

    There is a dearth of patient, preference-based cost-effectiveness analyses evaluating genetic testing for neovascular age-related macular degeneration (NVAMD).

    Authors: Gary C. Brown, Melissa M. Brown, Heidi B. Lieske, Philip A. Lieske and Kathryn S. Brown

    Citation: International Journal of Retina and Vitreous 2015 1:19

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  41. Content type: Original article

    This two-phase experimental study was conducted to determine the maximum safe dose of intravitreal imatinib (IVI) and its inhibitory effect on a rat model of choroidal neovascularization (CNV).

    Authors: Homayoun Nikkhah, Hamid Ahmadieh, Alireza Ramezani, Mozhgan Rezaei Kanavi, Seyed Bagher Hosseini, Naficeh Sadeghi, Seyed Mohsen Khandaghy Meybodi and Mehdi Yaseri

    Citation: International Journal of Retina and Vitreous 2015 1:16

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  42. Content type: Original research article

    To report a series of age-related macular degeneration (AMD) patients in whom progression to geographic atrophy (GA) in one eye receiving frequent intravitreal injections of anti-vascular endothelial growth fa...

    Authors: Elona Dhrami-Gavazi, Chandrakumar Balaratnasingam, Winston Lee and K. Bailey Freund

    Citation: International Journal of Retina and Vitreous 2015 1:15

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  43. Content type: Case report

    To use multimodal imaging to document the relatively rapid clinical evolution of handheld laser-induced maculopathy (HLIM). To demonstrate that inadvertent ocular injury can result from devices mislabeled with...

    Authors: Elona Dhrami-Gavazi, Winston Lee, Chandrakumar Balaratnasingam, Larisa Kayserman, Lawrence A. Yannuzzi and K. Bailey Freund

    Citation: International Journal of Retina and Vitreous 2015 1:14

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  44. Content type: Commentary

    Endophthalmitis is an uncommon but often visually devastating complication of intravitreal injections. This commentary reviews the key aspects and technical components of intravitreal injections and how they m...

    Authors: Roger A Goldberg

    Citation: International Journal of Retina and Vitreous 2015 1:12

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  45. Content type: Review

    Optic disc pit (ODP) is a rare congenital anomaly of the optic disc, which can be complicated by a maculopathy associated with progressive visual loss. Optic disc pits are usually unilateral and sporadic in oc...

    Authors: Elad Moisseiev, Joseph Moisseiev and Anat Loewenstein

    Citation: International Journal of Retina and Vitreous 2015 1:13

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  46. Content type: Case report

    Angioid streaks (AS) are the most common ocular manifestation in patients with pseudoxanthoma elasticum (PXE). The major cause of severe visual loss in patients with AS is choroidal neovascularization (CNV). W...

    Authors: Orly Gal-Or, Chandrakumar Balaratnasingam and K Bailey Freund

    Citation: International Journal of Retina and Vitreous 2015 1:11

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The official journal of the Brazilian Retina and Vitreous Society


International Journal of Retina and Vitreous is endorsed by the Pan American Society of Retina and Vitreous


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