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  1. To report the clinical, electrophysiological and the anatomical findings in a patient with Kearns–Sayre syndrome (KSS).

    Authors: Alvaro Ortiz, Juan Arias, Pedro Cárdenas, John Villamil, Marcela Peralta, Luis C. Escaf and Jacobo Ortiz

    Citation: International Journal of Retina and Vitreous 2017 3:24

    Content type: Case report

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  2. Intravitreal injection (IVI) is a very common vitreoretinal procedure, and multiple injections are often required per patient. This systematic review was conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of various loca...

    Authors: Helio Francisco Shiroma, Augusto Key Karazawa Takaschima, Michel Eid Farah, Ana Luisa Höfling-Lima, Graziela de Luca Canto, Roberto Henrique Benedetti and Eduardo Buchele Rodrigues

    Citation: International Journal of Retina and Vitreous 2017 3:23

    Content type: Original article

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  3. The aim of the study was to measure pH changes of the human vitreous caused by the intravitreal drugs bevacizumab, ranibizumab, aflibercept, and ziv-aflibercept.

    Authors: Bianka Sobolewska, Peter Heiduschka, Karl-Ulrich Bartz-Schmidt and Focke Ziemssen

    Citation: International Journal of Retina and Vitreous 2017 3:22

    Content type: Original article

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    The Correction to this article has been published in International Journal of Retina and Vitreous 2017 3:45

  4. Central vision loss in diabetic retinopathy is commonly related to diabetic macular edema (DME). The objective of this study was to describe changes between consecutive visits on optical coherence tomography a...

    Authors: Aditya Gill, Emily D. Cole, Eduardo A. Novais, Ricardo N. Louzada, Talisa de Carlo, Jay S. Duker, Nadia K. Waheed, Caroline R. Baumal and Andre J. Witkin

    Citation: International Journal of Retina and Vitreous 2017 3:19

    Content type: Original article

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  5. To compare the multimodal imaging findings of chronic central serous chorioretinopathy (CSC) patients who are good or poor responders to low-fluence photodynamic therapy (PDT).

    Authors: Abdullah Ozkaya, Ruveyde Garip, Zeynep Alkin and Muhittin Taskapili

    Citation: International Journal of Retina and Vitreous 2017 3:20

    Content type: Original article

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  6. This study retrospectively analyzed outcomes for patients undergoing gamma knife radiosurgery (GKR) for uveal melanoma (UM) and intraocular metastases.

    Authors: Margaret M. Reynolds, Andrea L. Arnett, Ian F. Parney, Ravi Kumar, Nadia N. Laack, Patrick R. Maloney, Timothy F. Kozelsky, Yolanda I. Garces, Robert L. Foote and Jose S. Pulido

    Citation: International Journal of Retina and Vitreous 2017 3:17

    Content type: Original article

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  7. To analyse morphologic features of the choroid in Non-pathological myopic eyes using spectral-domain (SD) optical coherence tomography (OCT).

    Authors: Rayan A. Alshareef, Mohammed K. Khuthaila, Manideepak Januwada, Abhilash Goud, Daniela Ferrara and Jay Chhablani

    Citation: International Journal of Retina and Vitreous 2017 3:28

    Content type: Original article

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  8. Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is the leading cause of blindness in the western world. As a consequence of AMD, patients develop structural damage that comprises the fovea and subsequently present loss...

    Authors: Juan Abel Ramírez Estudillo, Mario Isaías León Higuera, Sergio Rojas Juárez, Maria de Lourdes Ordaz Vera, Yessica Pablo Santana and Benito Celis Suazo

    Citation: International Journal of Retina and Vitreous 2017 3:21

    Content type: Original article

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  9. To assess foveal microstructural changes influencing retinal sensitivity (RS) and fixation stability using microperimeter MP-1 in intermediate age-related macular degeneration (AMD).

    Authors: Serena Fragiotta, Carmela Carnevale, Alessandro Cutini and Enzo Maria Vingolo

    Citation: International Journal of Retina and Vitreous 2017 3:8

    Content type: Original article

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  10. To evaluate the concentration of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in aqueous humor after a single intravitreal injection of bevacizumab (IVB) in eyes with neovascular age-related macular degeneration...

    Authors: Thiago Cabral, Luiz H. Lima, Júlia Polido, Jimmy Duong, Érika Okuda, Akiyoshi Oshima, Pedro Serracarbassa, Caio V. Regatieri and Rubens Belfort Jr

    Citation: International Journal of Retina and Vitreous 2017 3:6

    Content type: Original article

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  11. To determine the occurrence of macular edema (ME) in vitreoretinal lymphoma (VRL).

    Authors: Elisa Carreras, Diva R. Salomão, Jeroni Nadal, Sejal R. Amin, Harish Raja, Thomas J. Grube, Ryan L. Geraets, Patrick B. Johnston, Brian P. O’Neill and Jose S. Pulido

    Citation: International Journal of Retina and Vitreous 2017 3:15

    Content type: Review

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  12. To evaluate the characteristics and racial variations amongst patients with polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy (PCV) in the United States and the United Kingdom.

    Authors: Tarek Alasil, Nelida Munoz, Pearse A. Keane, Adnan Tufail, Patrick A. Coady, Eduardo Novais, Talisa E. de Carlo, Caroline R. Baumal, Nadia K. Waheed, Jay S. Duker and Ron A. Adelman

    Citation: International Journal of Retina and Vitreous 2017 3:9

    Content type: Original article

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  13. Post typhoid fever immune related reactions affecting the eye is a rare finding which can have various presentations in which typhoid retinopathy is not a well recognized sequelae.

    Authors: M. Prabhushanker, Tasneem T. Topiwalla, Geetha Ganesan and Sripal Appandaraj

    Citation: International Journal of Retina and Vitreous 2017 3:11

    Content type: Case report

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  14. The white dot syndromes (WDS) are a diverse group of posterior uveitidies that share similar clinical findings but are unique from one another. Multimodal imaging has allowed us to better understand the morpho...

    Authors: Meisha L. Raven, Alexander L. Ringeisen, Yoshihiro Yonekawa, Maxwell S. Stem, Lisa J. Faia and Justin L. Gottlieb

    Citation: International Journal of Retina and Vitreous 2017 3:12

    Content type: Review

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  15. In diabetic retinopathy (DR), macular involvement can present as either macular edema or ischemia. Fluorescein angiography remains the gold standard in the evaluation of retinal vascular perfusion and diagnosi...

    Authors: Jose Mauricio Botto de Barros Garcia, David Leonardo Cruvinel Isaac and Marcos Avila

    Citation: International Journal of Retina and Vitreous 2017 3:14

    Content type: Review

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  16. The eye is one of the most sensitive organs to sulfur mustard (SM) [C4H8Cl2S], and preliminary symptoms of exposure usually become evident in the eyes. In this study we aim to evaluate the possible long-term reti...

    Authors: Nasser Shoeibi, Mir Naghi Mousavi, Mahdi Balali-Mood, Mohammad Moshiri, Emadodin Darchini-Maragheh, Seyed Reza Mousavi and Mojtaba Abrishami

    Citation: International Journal of Retina and Vitreous 2017 3:7

    Content type: Original article

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  17. To compare a near decade of follow-up, newer control cohort data, use of both the societal and third party insurer cost perspectives, and integration of unilateral/bilateral therapy on the comparative effecti...

    Authors: Gary C. Brown, Melissa M. Brown, Heidi B. Lieske, Adam Turpcu and Yamina Rajput

    Citation: International Journal of Retina and Vitreous 2017 3:5

    Content type: Original article

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  18. Arthropod-borne viruses, or arboviruses, are viruses that are transmitted through the bites of mosquitoes and ticks. There are numerous arboviruses throughout the world capable of causing human disease spannin...

    Authors: Gabriel Costa de Andrade, Camila V. Ventura, Paulo Augusto de Arruda Mello Filho, Maurício Maia, Silvana Vianello and Eduardo Büchele Rodrigues

    Citation: International Journal of Retina and Vitreous 2017 3:4

    Content type: Review

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  19. Classic retinitis pigmentosa (RP) and other syndromic variants have previously been associated to Fuchs’ heterochromic iridocyclitis (FHI). Common immunogenic and inflammatory pathways have been proposed to ex...

    Authors: Gian Franco Díez-Cattini, David Arturo Ancona-Lezama, Carlos Valdés-Lara and Virgilio Morales-Cantón

    Citation: International Journal of Retina and Vitreous 2017 3:3

    Content type: Case report

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  20. To describe a wide array of peripheral vascular changes using fluorescein angiography in preterm neonates, without high risk characteristics for developing retinopathy of prematurity, that were exposed to high...

    Authors: Maria Ana Martinez-Castellanos, Raul Velez-Montoya, Kenneth Price, Andree Henaine-Berra, Gerardo García-Aguirre, Virgilio Morales-Canton and Linda Alejandra Cernichiaro-Espinosa

    Citation: International Journal of Retina and Vitreous 2017 3:2

    Content type: Original article

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  21. Biomarker”, a merged word of “biological marker”, refers to a broad subcategory of medical signs that objectively indicate the state of health, and well-being of an individual. Biomarkers hold great promise fo...

    Authors: Prateep Phadikar, Sandeep Saxena, Surabhi Ruia, Timothy Y. Y. Lai, Carsten H. Meyer and Dean Eliott

    Citation: International Journal of Retina and Vitreous 2017 3:1

    Content type: Review

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  22. There have been many advances in vitreoretinal surgery since Machemer introduced the concept of pars plana vitrectomy, in 1971. Of particular interest are the changes in the vitrectomy cutters, their fluidics ...

    Authors: Paulo Ricardo Chaves de Oliveira, Alan Richard Berger and David Robert Chow

    Citation: International Journal of Retina and Vitreous 2016 2:28

    Content type: Review

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  23. Neovascular glaucoma (NVG) is a secondary glaucoma generally associated with poor visual prognosis. The development of new vessels over the iris and the iridocorneal angle can obstruct aqueous humor outflow an...

    Authors: Gustavo B. Rodrigues, Ricardo Y. Abe, Camila Zangalli, Savio L. Sodre, Flavia A. Donini, Danilo C. Costa, Andre Leite, Joao P. Felix, Marcelo Torigoe, Alberto Diniz-Filho and Homero Gusmão de Almeida

    Citation: International Journal of Retina and Vitreous 2016 2:26

    Content type: Review

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  24. Technologies for multimodal digital imaging of vitreoretinal diseases have improved the accuracy of diagnosis and the depth of the knowledge of the mechanisms of disease and their response to treatments. Optic...

    Authors: Fabio Lavinsky and Daniel Lavinsky

    Citation: International Journal of Retina and Vitreous 2016 2:25

    Content type: Review

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  25. Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is the most common cause of dementia and its incidence is increasing worldwide along with population aging. Previous clinical and histologic studies suggest that the neurodegenerative ...

    Authors: Leonardo Provetti Cunha, Ana Laura Maciel Almeida, Luciana Virgínia Ferreira Costa-Cunha, Carolina Ferreira Costa and Mário L. R. Monteiro

    Citation: International Journal of Retina and Vitreous 2016 2:24

    Content type: Review

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  26. To investigate the choroidal thickness in older patients with central serous chorioretinopathy (CSCR) compared to age-matched normal subjects.

    Authors: Caio V. Regatieri, Eduardo A. Novais, Lauren Branchini, Mehreen Adhi, Emily D. Cole, Ricardo Louzada, Mark Lane, Elias Reichel and Jay S. Duker

    Citation: International Journal of Retina and Vitreous 2016 2:22

    Content type: Original article

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  27. Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is the major cause of blindness among working age adults. The aim of the study was to investigate risk factors for development of DR.

    Authors: Vinícius Carriero Lima, Gabriela Coutinho Cavalieri, Maurício Carriero Lima, Nazaré Otília Nazario and Gina Carriero Lima

    Citation: International Journal of Retina and Vitreous 2016 2:21

    Content type: Original article

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  28. To evaluate the effect of aflibercept (as second line therapy) on the clinical outcome in patients with chronic macular edema secondary to branch retinal vein occlusion (BRVO) insufficiently responding to pri...

    Authors: Magdalena A. Wirth, Matthias D. Becker, Nicole Graf and Stephan Michels

    Citation: International Journal of Retina and Vitreous 2016 2:20

    Content type: Original article

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  29. Lutein and zeaxanthin, two carotenoid pigments of the xanthophyll subclass, are present in high concentrations in the retina, especially in the macula. They work as a filter protecting the macula from blue lig...

    Authors: Verônica Castro Lima, Richard B. Rosen and Michel Farah

    Citation: International Journal of Retina and Vitreous 2016 2:19

    Content type: Review

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  30. Presence of subretinal abscess in endogenous endophthalmitis indicates a more severe form of infection. Available reports indicate variable response to standard treatment with systemic, intravitreal pharmacoth...

    Authors: Pradeep Venkatesh, Shreys Temkar, Koushik Tripathy and Rohan Chawla

    Citation: International Journal of Retina and Vitreous 2016 2:17

    Content type: Case report

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  31. To report expanded SD-OCT findings of HCQ retinopathy that may assist the clinician in earlier diagnosis. To characterize structural changes of HCQ retinopathy with SD-OCT after drug cessation.

    Authors: David R. Lally, Jeffrey S. Heier, Caroline Baumal, Andre J. Witkin, Steven Maler, Chirag P. Shah, Elias Reichel, Nadia K. Waheed, Igor Bussel, Adam Rogers and Jay S. Duker

    Citation: International Journal of Retina and Vitreous 2016 2:18

    Content type: Original article

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  32. Diabetic macular edema (DME) shows a gradual and sustained functional and morphologic response to anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) drugs, but the optimal schedule for initiation of anti-VEGF ther...

    Authors: Focke Ziemssen, Patricio G. Schlottman, Jennifer I. Lim, Hansjürgen Agostini, Gabriele E. Lang and Francesco Bandello

    Citation: International Journal of Retina and Vitreous 2016 2:16

    Content type: Original article

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  33. Pseudoxanthoma elasticum (PXE) typically involves elastic fibers in blood vessels and Bruch membrane. Our purpose was to analyze retinal and choroidal macular thickness in patients with angioid streaks due PXE...

    Authors: Rosa Dolz-Marco, María Andreu-Fenoll, Pablo Hernández-Martínez, M. Dolores Pinazo-Durán and Roberto Gallego-Pinazo

    Citation: International Journal of Retina and Vitreous 2016 2:15

    Content type: Original article

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  34. Macular pigment (MP) has been related to the occurrence of age related macular degeneration (AMD). We investigated prospectively in eyes of elderly individuals how magnitude and spatial distribution of MP had ...

    Authors: Verena Meyer zu Westrup, Martha Dietzel, Meike Zeimer, Daniel Pauleikhoff and Hans-Werner Hense

    Citation: International Journal of Retina and Vitreous 2016 2:14

    Content type: Original article

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  35. Bilateral diffuse uveal melanocytic proliferation (BDUMP) is a rare, paraneoplastic syndrome characterized by bilateral painless visual loss and proliferation of choroidal melanocytes in association with an un...

    Authors: Jonathan Naysan, Claudine E. Pang, Robert W. Klein and K. Bailey Freund

    Citation: International Journal of Retina and Vitreous 2016 2:13

    Content type: Case report

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  36. Retinal microvascular imaging is an especially promising application of high resolution imaging since there are increasing options for therapeutic intervention and need for better structural and functional bio...

    Authors: Toco Y. P. Chui, Shelley Mo, Brian Krawitz, Nikhil R. Menon, Nadim Choudhury, Alexander Gan, Moataz Razeen, Nishit Shah, Alexander Pinhas and Richard B. Rosen

    Citation: International Journal of Retina and Vitreous 2016 2:11

    Content type: Review

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  37. Fundus autofluorescence (FAF) is a non-invasive retinal imaging modality used in clinical practice to provide a density map of lipofuscin, the predominant ocular fluorophore, in the retinal pigment epithelium....

    Authors: Madeline Yung, Michael A. Klufas and David Sarraf

    Citation: International Journal of Retina and Vitreous 2016 2:12

    Content type: Review

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  38. To compare early visual and anatomical outcomes after either sulfur hexafluoride (SF6) or perfluoropropane (C3F8) tamponade for macular hole repair.

    Authors: Giamberto Casini, Pasquale Loiudice, Stefano De Cillà, Paolo Radice and Marco Nardi

    Citation: International Journal of Retina and Vitreous 2016 2:10

    Content type: Original article

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  39. To evaluate the role of thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS) and nitric oxide (NO) as biochemical biomarkers and central subfield (CST) and cube average thickness (CAT) as biomarkers for medical imag...

    Authors: Surabhi Ruia, Sandeep Saxena, S. Prasad, Shashi R. Sharma, Levent Akduman and Vinay K. Khanna

    Citation: International Journal of Retina and Vitreous 2016 2:8

    Content type: Original article

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  40. Outer retinal tubulations (ORTs) are branching tubular structures located in the outer nuclear layer of the retina. The goal of this study is to determine the prevalence of ORTs observed in eyes with choroidal...

    Authors: Richard Geraldo Giachetti Filho, Leandro Cabral Zacharias, Thaís Vera Monteiro, Rony Carlos Preti and Sérgio Gianoti Pimentel

    Citation: International Journal of Retina and Vitreous 2016 2:6

    Content type: Original article

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  41. Birdshot chorioretinopathy is a chronic bilateral inflammatory disease of unknown etiology characterized by bilateral retinal vasculitis, mild to moderate vitritis, retinal vascular leakage, cystoid macular ed...

    Authors: Marisa Gobuty, Mehreen Adhi, Sarah P. Read and Jay S. Duker

    Citation: International Journal of Retina and Vitreous 2016 2:9

    Content type: Original article

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  42. The Editors of International Journal of Retina and Vitreous would like to thank all of our reviewers, both external and Editorial Board Members, who have contributed to the journal in Volume 1 (2015) and whose va...

    Authors: Jay Duker and Eduardo Rodrigues

    Citation: International Journal of Retina and Vitreous 2016 2:7

    Content type: Reviewer acknowledgement

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  43. To compare choroidal thickness in patients with adult-onset foveomacular vitelliform dystrophy (AOFVD) with healthy subjects and to correlate choroidal thickness with age, gender and spherical equivalent.

    Authors: Renato Menezes Palácios, Thaís Sousa Mendes, Ronaldo Yuiti Sano, Davi Chen Wu, Teruo Aihara and Roberta Pereira de Almeida Manzano

    Citation: International Journal of Retina and Vitreous 2016 2:5

    Content type: Original article

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  44. Uveal melanoma is the most common primary intraocular tumor in adults, and it has a strong potential to metastasize. Traditionally, clinicopathological features of these tumors were used to provide a limited p...

    Authors: Victoria J. Schopper and Zelia M. Correa

    Citation: International Journal of Retina and Vitreous 2016 2:4

    Content type: Review

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